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ASME A18.1, Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and 
Stairway Chairlifts, 2005 Edition, as required 
by States and Municipalities, including 
Arizona, Indiana, Minnesota, Texas, Vermont, 
Wisconsin, Nevada, Colorado, et . alia. 



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Safety Standard 
for Platform Lifts 
and Stairway 
Chairlifts 



AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD 




Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. <<& 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^s 



Errata 

to 

ASME A18.1-2005 

Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway 

Chairlifts 



On page 42 the first paragraph in para. 6.8, and on page 46 the first paragraph in para. 7.8 
were incorrectly revised in the 2005 edition. They are being reinstated, by this errata, in their 
original form as they appeared in the 2003 edition. The correct paragraphs are presented below. 



6.8 Safeties and Governors 

All platforms shall be provided with a safety, except for 
platforms of direct-plunger hydraulic lifts or self -locking drives 
utilizing a lead screw or other positive gearing that will stop 
and hold the carriage with rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of 
down travel after power is removed. 

7.8 Safeties and Governors 

All carriages shall be provided with a safety, except for plat- 
forms of direct-plunger hydraulic lifts or self-locking drives 
utilizing a lead screw or other positive gearing that will stop 
and hold the carriage with rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of 
down travel after power is removed. 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 

April 2006 




A0145E 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 

(Revision of ASME A18.1-2003) 



Safety Standard 
for Platform Lifts 
and Stairway 
Chairlifts 



AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD 




Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Date of Issuance: November 29, 2005 



The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2008. This Standard will become 
effective 6 months after the Date of Issuance. There will be no addenda issued to this edition. 

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this 
Standard. Interpretations are published on the ASME Web site under the Committee Pages at http:// 
www.asme.org/codes/ as they are issued. 



ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National 
Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from 
competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made 
available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, 
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. 

ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any 
items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for 
infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assumes any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly 
advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is 
entirely their own responsibility. 

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person (s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as 
government or industry endorsement of this code or standard. 

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established 
ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. 



No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, 

in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, 

without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 



Copyright © 2005 by 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

All rights reserved 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



CONTENTS 



Foreword iv 

Committee Roster v 

Correspondence With the A18 Committee vi 

Summary of Changes vii 

1 Introduction 1 

2 Vertical Platform Lifts 5 

3 Inclined Platform Lifts 19 

4 Inclined Stairway Chairlifts 26 

5 Private Residence Vertical Platform Lifts 30 

6 Private Residence Inclined Platform Lifts 38 

7 Private Residence Inclined Stairway Chairlifts 44 

8 Driving Means 48 

9 Engineering Type Testing and Design 52 

10 Routine, Periodic, and Acceptance Inspections and Tests 56 

Figures 

2.6.7 Plaftform Lift Corridor Call Station Pictograph 15 

9.7 Minimum Loads to Sustain and Lower Based Upon Inside Net 

Platform Area 55 

Tables 

1.5-1 Reference Documents 6 

1.5-2 Procurement Information 7 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



FOREWORD 



- This Standard is one of the numerous standards developed and published by The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for 
American National Standards. The consensus committee that approved the Standard was balanced 
to ensure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to 
participate. 

This Standard is intended to serve as the basis for state, municipal, and other jurisdictional 
authorities in drafting regulations governing the installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, 
alteration, and repair of platform lifts and stairway chairlifts. It is also intended as a standard 
reference of safety requirements for the guidance of architects, engineers, insurance companies, 
manufacturers, and contractors, and as a standard of safety practices for owners and management 
of structures where equipment covered in the Scope of this Standard is used. 

This Standard is available for public review on a continuing basis. This provides an opportunity 
for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. 

Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public health and safety. Revisions result 
from committee consideration of factors such as technological advances, new data, and changing 
environmental and industry needs. Revisions do not imply that previous editions were inadequate. 

It should be pointed out that any governmental jurisdiction has authority over any particular 
installation. Inquiries dealing with problems of a local character should be directed to the proper 
authority of such jurisdiction. It is recommended that, prior to adoption, all pertinent state and 
local laws or ordinances be reviewed and where there is a conflict with any of the requirements 
of this Standard an exception to such conflicting requirement be noted, quoting the section of 
the law that applies. 

Equipment covered by this Standard was originally incorporated as a 1983 supplement to 
ANSI/ASME A17.1-1981, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. In ANSI/ASME A17.1b- 
1983, a new Part XXI covering private residence inclined stairway chairlifts and inclined and 
vertical wheelchair lifts was added. Part XX was added to cover these same devices installed in 
buildings other than private residences. 

In 1996, as a result of the effort to harmonize the ASME A17.1 Code and the CAN/CSA-B44 
Safety Code for Elevators, a new Main Committee on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts was 
established. The Committee developed the first edition, which incorporates Parts XX and XXI, 
as well as the applicable cross-references in ASME Al 7. 1-1996, up to and including ASME 
A17.1a-1997. 

The first edition of this Standard was approved by the ASME Committee on Platform Lifts 
and Stairway Lifts, was approved and designated as an ASME Standard by the American National 
Standards Institute (ANSI) on June 21, 1999, and was issued on July 26, 1999. The A18.1a-2001 
addenda was approved on January 30, 2001 and issued on March 26, 2001. The A18.1b-2001 
addenda was approved on December 11, 2001 and issued on April 11, 2002. 

Second editon of this Standard was approved by ANSI on July 29, 2003, and was issued on 
September 12, 2003. 

Following approval by the A18 Standards Committee and ASME, and after public review, 
ASME A18.1-2005 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on May 6, 2005. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18 COMMITTEE 

Safety Standard for 

Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts 

(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard.) 

OFFICERS 



G. L. Harmon, Chair 

D. W. Boydston, Vice Chair 

E. Cho, Secretary 

COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 

D. C. Balmer, Concord Elevator, Inc. 

R. Murphy, Alternate, Concord Elevator, Inc. 

P. Barnhart, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 

B. D. Black, Eastern Paralyzed Veterans Association 

J. C. Bovis, jon Bovis Consultants 

D. W. Boydston, Handi-Lift, Inc. 

j. Martin, Alternate, Accessibility Lifts, Inc. 
P. Caploon, State of New Jersey 

F. D. Carty, United Lift Service Co., Inc. 
N. D. Chaitin, McKinley Equipment Corp. 

W. M. McKinley, Alternate, McKinley Equipment Corp. 
P. Chance, Inclinator Company of Central Pennsylvania 

E. Cho, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
P. Edwards, Integrity Group Co., Inc. 

D. Hallman, DME Access, Inc. 

G. L. Harmon, National Wheel-O-Vator 

K. Brinkman PE, Alternate, National Wheel-O-Vator 

G. E. Hedman PE, University of Illinois 

M. K. Mazz, The Access Board 

S. J. Windley, Alternate, The Access Board 

M. L. McDonald, Access Disability Advisor, Inc. 

J. L. Meyer, State of California 

P. M. Puno, Alternate, State of California 

B. Page, Bruno Independent Living Aids 

T. A. Andrus, Alternate, Bruno Independent Living Aids 

R. L. Phillips, Georgia Department of Labor 

G. A. Rogers, Elevator Industry Work Preservation Fund 

M. Townsend, Garaventa (Canada) Ltd. 

R. B. Weber, Weber Accessibility System, Inc. 

E. J. Zuercher, Ascension, A Division of AGM 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE A18 COMMITTEE 



General. ASME Standards are developed and maintained with the intent to represent the 
consensus of concerned interests. As such, users of this Standard may interact with the Committee 
by requesting interpretations, proposing revisions, and attending Committee meetings. Corre- 
spondence should be addressed to: 

Secretary, A18 Standards Committee 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016-5990 

Proposing Revisions. Revisions are made periodically to the Standard to incorporate changes 
that appear necessary or desirable, as demonstrated by the experience gained from the application 
of the Standard. Approved revisions will be published periodically. 

The Committee welcomes proposals for revisions to this Standard. Such proposals should be 
as specific as possible, citing the paragraph number(s), the proposed wording, and a detailed 
description of the reasons for the proposal, including any pertinent documentation. 

Interpretations. Upon request, the A18 Standards Committee will render an interpretation of 
any requirement of the Standard. Interpretations can only be rendered in response to a written 
request sent to the Secretary of the A18 Standards Committee. 

The request for interpretation should be clear and unambiguous. It is further recommended 
that the inquirer submit his/her request in the following format: 

Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) and the topic of the inquiry. 

Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the Standard for which the interpretation is 

being requested. 

Question: Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation of a specific requirement 

suitable for general understanding and use, not as a request for an approval 
of a proprietary design or situation. The inquirer may also include any plans 
or drawings which are necessary to explain the question; however, they should 
not contain proprietary names or information. 

Requests that are not in this format will be rewritten in this format by the Committee prior 
to being answered, which may inadvertently change the intent of the original request. 

ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any interpretation when or if additional 
information that might affect an interpretation is available. Further, persons aggrieved by an 
interpretation may appeal to the cognizant ASME Committee or Subcommittee. ASME does not 
"approve," "certify," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

Attending Committee Meetings. The A18 Standards Committee regularly holds meetings, which 
are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend any meeting should contact the Secretary of 
the A18 Standards Committee. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 
SUMMARY OF CHANGES 



Following approval by the ASME A18 Committee and ASME, and after public review, ASME 
A18.1-2005 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on May 6, 2005. 

The 2005 edition of ASME A18.1 includes revisions that are identified by a margin note, (05). 
The following is a summary of the latest revisions and changes. 



Page 
3 



6 

7 
9 

10 
13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18, 19 



23 
26 

31 

34,35 

36,37 

42 
46 
52 
55 



Location 
1.3 

1.4 

1.5 

Table 1.4-1 

Table 1.4-2 

2.1.3.3 

2.1.3.4 

2.1.3.6 

2.5.1.1 

2.5.2 

2.7.1 

2.8 

2.8.8 

2.12 

2.13 

3.1.2.3 

3.6.10 

3.12 

3.13 

5.1.1.2 

5.1.1.7 

5.5.1.1 

5.5.2 

5.7.1 

5.8 

5.8.8 

6.8 

7.8 

8.3.2 

Fig. 9.7 



Change 

Definition of lever hydraulic driving 
machine added 

Added 

Para. 1.4 redesignated as 1.5 

Redesignated as 1.5-1 

Redesignated as 1.5-2 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Added 

Added 

Para. 2.12 redesignated as 2.13 

Revised 

Added 

Added 

Para. 3.12 redesignated as 3.13 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Added 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



c 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



1 INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Scope 

1.1.1 Equipment Covered by This Standard. This 
safety Standard covers the design, construction, installa- 
tion, operation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and 
repair of inclined stairway chairlifts and inclined and 
vertical platform lifts intended for transportation of a 
mobility impaired person only. The device shall have a 
limited vertical travel, operating speed, and platform 
area. Operation shall be under continuous control of 
the user/ attendant. The device shall not penetrate more 
than one floor. A full passenger enclosure on the plat- 
form shall be prohibited. 

1.1.2 Equipment Not Covered by This Standard. 

Equipment not covered by this Standard includes, but 
is not limited to, the following: 

(a) elevators, escalators, moving walkways, material 
lifts, and dumbwaiters within the scope of ASME 
A17.1b-1997 and later edition 

(b) personnel hoists within the scope of ANSI A10.4 

(c) manlifts within the scope of ASME A90.1 

(d) powered platform and equipment for exterior and 
interior building maintenance within the scope of ANSI 
A120.1 

(e) portable equipment 

(f) amusement devices 

(g) stage and orchestra lifts 

1.1.3 Application. This Standard applies to new 
installations only. 

1.1.4 Effective Date. The requirements of this edition 
to the Standard are effective as of the date established by 
the local regulations of the authority having jurisdiction. 
Where the Standard has not been adopted by local regu- 
lation and a specific edition has not been stipulated by 
contractual agreement, compliance with this edition is 
recommended as of the effective date listed in the front 
of the document. 

1.2 Purpose and Exceptions 

The purpose of this Standard is to provide for the 
safety of life and limb, and to promote the public welfare. 



The provisions of this Standard are not intended to 
prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equiv- 
alent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effec- 
tiveness, durability, and safety to those prescribed by 
this Standard provided that there is technical documen- 
tation to demonstrate the equivalency of the system, 
method, or device. 

The specific requirements of this Standard shall be 
permitted to be modified by the authority having juris- 
diction based upon technical documentation or physical 
performance verification to allow alternative arrange- 
ments that will assure safety equivalent to that which 
would be provided by conformance to the correspond- 
ing requirements of this Standard. 

1.3 Definitions 

This section defines various terms used in this 
Standard. 

alteration: any change to equipment other than mainte- 
nance, repair, or replacement. 

approved: acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 

authority having jurisdiction: organization, office, or indi- 
vidual responsible for approving equipment. Where 
compliance with this Standard has been mandated by 
law, the "authority having jurisdiction" is the federal, 
state, or local department or individual so designated 
in the enacting legislation or administrative regulation. 

authorized personnel: persons who have been instructed 
in the operation and /or maintenance of the equipment 
and designated by the owner to use or maintain the 
equipment. 

building code: an ordinance that sets forth requirements 
for building design and construction, or where such an 
ordinance has not been enacted, one of the following 
model codes: 

(a) National Building Code 

(b) Standard Building Code 

(c) Uniform Building Code 

cable, traveling: see traveling cable. 

capacity: see rated load. 

certified: a certification by a testing laboratory, a profes- 
sional engineer, a manufacturer, or a contractor that a 
device or an assembly conforms to the requirements of 
this Standard. 



1 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



combination mechanical lock and electric contact: a combina- 
tion mechanical and electrical device with two related 
but entirely independent functions, which are 

(a) to prevent operation of the driving machine by 
the normal operating device unless the door or gate is 
in the closed position 

(b) to lock the door or gate in the closed position and 
prevent it from being opened from the landing side 
unless the platform is within the specified distance from 
the landing 

compensating-rope sheave switch: a device that automati- 
cally causes the electric power to be removed from the 
driving-machine motor and brake when the compensat- 
ing sheave approaches its upper or lower limit of travel. 

contacts: see door or gate electric contact. 

control: the system governing the starting, stopping, 
direction of motion, acceleration, speed, and retardation 
of the moving member. 

controller: a device or group of devices that serves to 
control in a predetermined manner the apparatus to 
which it is connected. 

door or gate: the movable portion(s) of the platform or 
runway entrance that closes the opening providing 
access to the platform or landing. It consists of one or 
more panels that may be equipped with a vision panel. 

door or gate, manually operated: door or gate that is 
opened and closed by hand. 

door or gate, power-operated: a door or gate that is 
opened and closed by a door or gate power-operator. 

door or gate, self-closing: a manually opened door or 
gate that closes when released. 

door or gate closer: a device that closes a door or gate by 
means of a spring or gravity. 

door or gate electric contact: an electrical device, the func- 
tion of which is to prevent operation of the driving 
machine by the normal operating device unless the door 
or gate is in the closed position. 

door or gate power-operator: a device or assembly of 
devices that opens a door or gate by power other than 
by hand, gravity, springs, or the movement of the plat- 
form; and that closes them by power other than by hand, 
gravity, or the movement of the platform. 

driving machine: see machine, driving. 

emergency stop switch: a device that, when manually oper- 
ated, causes the lift to halt its motion. 

enforcing authority: see authority having jurisdiction. 

entrance hardware: all components of an entrance, exclu- 
sive of the frame, door panels, and locks, that are neces- 
sary to maintain the position of the panels within the 
assembly. 

factor of safety: the ratio of the ultimate strength to the 
working stress of a member under maximum static load- 
ing, unless otherwise specified in a particular rule. 



full passenger enclosure: an assembly inclusive of the plat- 
form top, minimum 2 000 mm (80 in.) tall walls, mini- 
mum 2 000 mm (80 in.) tall platform doors and 
platform floor. 

gate: see door or gate. 

governor: see speed governor. 

governor pull-through tension (force): the magnitude of the 
tensile load developed in the moving governor rope 
after the governor rope-retarding means is actuated. 

governor pull-retarding means: a mechanical means of 
developing a sufficient force in the governor rope to 
activate the platform or counterweight safeties or to trip 
the governor rope releasing carrier, where used. Such 
mechanical means include, but are not limited to, rope- 
gripping jaws, clutch mechanisms, and traction arrange- 
ments. 

inclined platform lift: a powered hoisting and lowering 
mechanism designed to transport mobility-impaired 
persons on a guided platform that travels on an incline. 

inclined stairway chairlift: a powered hoisting and low- 
ering mechanism that is guided, equipped with a seat, 
to transport seated passengers along stairways. 

inspection and tests 

acceptance: the initial inspection and tests of new or 
altered equipment to check for compliance with the 
applicable requirements. 

periodic: routine inspection and tests plus additional 
detailed examination and operation of equipment at 
specified intervals witnessed by an inspector to check 
for compliance with the applicable requirements. 

routine: the examination and operation of equipment 
at specified intervals by an inspector to check for compli- 
ance with the applicable requirements. 

installation: a complete platform lift or stairway chairlift, 
including all machinery and equipment necessary for 
its operation. 

installation, existing: an installation that has been com- 
pleted or is under construction prior to the effective date 
of this Standard. 

installation, new: any installation not classified as an 
existing installation by definition, or an existing plat- 
form lift or stairway chairlift moved to a new location 
subsequent to the effective date of this Standard. 

installation, placed out of service: an installation whose 
power feed lines have been disconnected from the 
machine disconnect switch. 

labeled: equipment or materials to which has been 
attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of 
an independent certifying organization concerned with 
product evaluation, that maintains periodic inspection 
of production of labeled equipment or materials and by 
whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. £*& 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^* 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



with appropriate standards or performance in a speci- 
fied manner. 

landing: that portion of a floor, balcony, or platform used 
to receive and discharge passengers. 

landing, bottom terminal: the lowest landing served. 

landing, top terminal: the highest landing served. 

landing, unenclosed: a landing that is open to the atmo- 
sphere or is open to an interior court of a building. 

(05) lever hydraulic driving machine: a hydraulic machine in 
which the plunger or cylinder is attached to the platform 
via levers. 

listed: equipment or materials included in a list pub- 
lished by an independent certifying organization con- 
cerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic 
inspection of production of listed equipment or materi- 
als and whose listing states whether that equipment or 
material meets appropriate standards or has been tested 
and found suitable for use in a specified manner. 

machine, driving: the power unit that applies the energy 
necessary to raise and lower equipment covered by the 
scope of this Standard. 

belt-drive machine: an indirect-drive machine equipped 
with a belt system as the connecting means. 

chain-drive machine: an indirect-drive machine with a 
chain system as the connecting means. 

direct-drive machine: an electric driving machine, the 
motor of which is directly connected mechanically to 
the driving sheave, drum, or shaft without the use of 
belts or chains, either with or without intermediate 
gears. 

direct-plunger driving machine: a hydraulic driving 
machine in which the plunger or cylinder is directly 
attached to the platform. 

electric driving machine: one where the energy is 
applied by an electric motor. It includes the motor, brake, 
and the driving sheave or drum together with its con- 
necting gearing, belt, or chain, if any. 

friction machine: a direct-drive machine in which the 
motion of the platform is obtained through friction 
between a guiding means and driving wheels or rollers. 

geared-drive machine: a direct-drive machine in which 
the energy is transmitted from the motor to the driving 
sheave, drum, or shaft through gearing. 

geared- traction machine: a geared-drive traction 
machine. 

gearless-traction machine: a traction machine, without 
intermediate gearing, that has the traction sheave and 
the brake drum mounted directly on the motor shaft. 

hydraulic driving machine: one in which the energy is 
applied by means of a liquid under pressure in a cylinder 
equipped with a plunger or piston. 

indirect-drive machine: an electric driving machine, the 
motor of which is connected indirectly to the driving 



sheave, drum, gear reducer, or shaft by means of a belt 
drive or chain drive. 

rack and pinion driving machine: an electric driving 
machine in which the motion of the platform lift or 
stairway chairlift is obtained by power-driven rotating 
pinion(s) mounted on the platform, traveling on a sta- 
tionary rack mounted in the runway. 

roped-hydraulic driving machine: a hydraulic driving 
machine in which the plunger or piston is connected to 
the platform with wire ropes or indirectly coupled to 
the platform by means of wire ropes and sheaves. It 
includes the cylinder, the plunger or piston, and multi- 
plying sheaves, if any, and their guides. 

rope sprocket drive: a driving means consisting of wire 
rope with fixed links at constant intervals throughout 
its length. The links engage in slots on a grooved drive 
cog to provide a positive drive force. 

screw machine: an electric driving machine, the motor 
of which drives a nut on a screw or rotates a screw to 
raise or lower a platform lift or stairway chairlift. 

traction machine: a direct-drive machine in which the 
motion of a platform is obtained through traction 
between the suspension ropes and a traction sheave. 

winding drum machine: a geared-drive machine in 
which the suspension ropes are fastened to and wind 
on a drum. 

worm-geared machine: a direct-drive machine in which 
the energy from the motor is transmitted to the driving 
sheave or drum through worm gearing. 

main floor: the floor providing normal egress from a 
building. 

maintenance: a process of routine examination, lubrica- 
tion, cleaning, adjustment, and replacement of parts for 
the purpose of ensuring performance in accordance with 
the applicable Code requirements. 

masonry: built-up construction or combination of build- 
ing units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gyp- 
sum, stone, or other approved units bonded together 
with mortar or monolithic concrete. Reinforced concrete 
is not classed as masonry. 

operating device: the switch, pushbutton, lever, or other 
devices used to actuate the control. 

operation: the method of actuating the control. 

operation, continuous-pressure: operation by means of 
buttons or switches on the platform lift or stairway chair- 
lift and on the platform, any one of which may be used 
to control the movement of the platform lift as long 
as the button or switch is manually maintained in the 
actuating position. 

overhead structure: all of the structural members support- 
ing the machinery, sheaves, and equipment at the top 
of the runway. 

penetrate a floor: pass through or pierce a floor in such 
a way that the opening has a continuous perimeter and 



3 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



is provided only to allow the equipment to pass through 
the floor. 

piston: short cylindrical member that is provided with 
a sealing means that travels with the member within a 
hydraulic cylinder. 

pit: that portion of a runway extending from the sill 
level of the lowest landing to the floor at the bottom of 
the runway. 

platform: the load carrying unit, including, but not lim- 
ited to frame, floor, enclosure, seat, and door or gate. 

platform frame: a structural frame, composed of intercon- 
necting members, which supports the platform. 

plunger (ram): a long cylindrical compression member 
that is directly or indirectly coupled to the platform 
frame. This member is not provided with a sealing 
means. Where used in assembly with a cylinder, the 
sealing means is provided on the cylinder head, in the 
case of telescopic plungers and cylinders, a sealing 
means may be used in the moving plunger that is also 
a cylinder. 

position indicator: a device that indicates the position of 
the platform in the runway. It is called a hall position 
indicator when placed at a landing, or a platform posi- 
tion indicator when placed in the platform. 

private residence: a separate dwelling or a separate apart- 
ment in a multiple dwelling that is occupied only by 
the members of a single family unit. 

rated load: the load that the equipment is designed and 
installed to lift at the rated speed. 

rated load performance: the operation of the equipment 
with its rated load at rated speed. 

rated speed: the speed at which the equipment is designed 
to operate in the up direction with rated load in the 
platform. 

recycling operation, telescopic plunger: an operation for 
restoring the relative vertical positions of the multiple 
plungers in a telescoping plunger arrangement. 

releasing carrier, governor rope: a mechanical device to 
which the governor rope may be fastened, calibrated to 
control the activation of a safety at a predetermined 
tripping force. 

repair: the process of rehabilitation or replacement of 
parts that are basically the same as the original for the 
purpose of ensuring performance in accordance with 
the applicable Code requirements. 

replacement: the substitution of a device or component 
in its entirety with a new unit that is basically the same 
as the original for the purpose of ensuring performance 
in accordance with applicable Code requirements. 

rise: see travel. 



rope, compensating: wire rope used to counterbalance, or 
partially counterbalance, the weight of the suspension 
ropes. 

rope, counterweight: wire rope used to raise and lower the 
counterweight on equipment having a winding drum 
machine or a hydraulic machine equipped with a coun- 
terweight. 

rope, governor: wire rope with at least one end fastened 
to the safety activating means or governor rope releasing 
carrier, passing over and driving the governor sheave, 
and providing continuous information on the speed and 
direction of the platform or counterweight. 

rope, suspension (hoisting): wire rope used to raise and 
lower a platform lift or its counterweight, or a stairway 
chairlift, or both. 

rope equalizer, suspension: a device installed on a platform 
or counterweight to equalize automatically the tensions 
in the suspension wire ropes. 

rope-fastening device, auxiliary: a device attached to the 
platform or counterweight or to the overhead dead-end 
rope-hitch support that will function automatically to 
support the platform or counterweight in case the regu- 
lar wire-rope fastening fails at the point of connection 
to the platform or counterweight or at the overhead 
dead-end hitch. 

runby, top, direct-plunger hydraulic: the distance the plat- 
form can run above its top terminal landing before the 
plunger strikes its mechanical stop. 

runway: the space in which the platform or seat moves. 

runway door or gate, locking device: a device that secures 
a runway door or gate in the closed position and pre- 
vents it from being opened from the landing side except 
under certain specified conditions. 

safety bulkhead: a closure at the bottom of the cylinder 
located above the cylinder head and provided with an 
orifice for controlling the loss of fluid in the event of 
cylinder head failure. 

safety, platform or counterweight: a mechanical device 
attached to the platform frame or to an auxiliary frame, 
or to the counterweight frame, to stop and hold the 
platform or counterweight under one or more of the 
following conditions: predetermined overspeed, free 
fall, or if the suspension ropes slacken. 

safety, self-resetting: a platform or counterweight safety 
released and reset by movement in the up direction. 

screw column: a structural member provided with screw 
threads that supports the platform on screw driving 
machines. 

shall: indicates a mandatory requirement. 

should: indicates a recommendation, not a mandatory 
requirement. 



C 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



slack-rope switch: a device that automatically causes the 
electric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake when the suspension ropes of a wind- 
ing drum machine become slack. 

sleeving (liner): the insertion of a smaller diameter cylin- 
der inside the existing cylinder of a hydraulic driving 
machine. 

solid state device: an element that can control current flow 
without moving parts. 

speed governor: a continuously operating speed monitor- 
ing and detection device that, at predetermined speeds, 
provides signals to the controller and imparts a retarding 
force to activate the platform lift or counterweight safety, 
or stairway chairlift. 

starters control panel: an assembly of devices by means 
of which the starter may control the manner in which 
a lift functions. 

static switching: switching of circuits by means of solid 
state devices. 

stop switch: see emergency stop switch. 

supply piping: the piping for a hydraulic driving machine 
between the control valves and the driving member of 
the driving machine. 

terminal landing: see landing. 

terminal stopping device, final: a device that automatically 
causes the power to be removed from the driving 
machine motor and brake, or from a hydraulic driving 
machine, independent of the functioning of the normal 
terminal stopping device, the operating device, or any 
emergency terminal speed limiting device, after the plat- 
form lift or stairway chairlift has passed a terminal 
landing. 

terminal stopping device, machine final (stop-motion switch): 
a final terminal stopping device operated directly by 
the driving machine. 

terminal stopping device, normal: a device or devices to 
slow down and stop a platform lift or stairway chairlift 
automatically at or near a terminal landing indepen- 
dently of the functioning of the operating device. 

travel (rise): the vertical distance between the bottom 
terminal landing and the top terminal landing. 

traveling cable: a cable made up of electric conductors, 
which provides electrical connection between a platform 
lift or stairway chairlift and a fixed outlet in the runway. 

valley break: a broken wire in a wire rope in which the 
outside wire of a strand breaks in the immediate vicinity 
of the point where it contacts a wire or wires of an 
adjacent strand, generally at a point not visible when 
the wire rope is examined externally. One end of the 
broken wire is long enough to reach from one valley to 
the next one and the other end of the broken wire gener- 
ally cannot be seen. 



vertical platform lift: a powered hoisting and lowering 
mechanism designed to transport mobility-impaired 
persons on a guided platform that travels vertically. 

weatherproof: so constructed or protected that exposure 
to the weather will not interfere with its successful oper- 
ation. 

window: an assembly consisting of a surrounding frame 
and one or more sashes, ventilators, or fixed lights, or 
a combination of these, designed to be installed in a 
wall opening for the purpose of admitting light or air, 
or both. 

working pressure: the pressure measured at the cylinder 
of a hydraulic driving machine when the platform lift 
or stairway chairlift are lifting their rated load at rated 
speed. 

1.4 Metric (SI) Units (05) 

This edition of the standard uses hard metric (SI) 
units whenever practical. The acceptable equivalent U.S. 
Customary units are shown in parenthesis. Information 
on the usage of SI units and conversion to U.S. Custom- 
ary units is contained in IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997 Stan- 
dard for the Use of the International System of Units 
(SI): The Modern Metric System, or ASME Guide SI-1, 
Orientation and Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units. 

Requirements related to speed and load use the hard 
metric and hard U.S. Customary units in common prac- 
tice, even though they are not exactly equivalent. 

1.5 Reference Codes, Standards, and Specifications (05) 

This section covers the codes, standards, and specifi- 
cations incorporated in this Standard by reference; the 
specific editions that are applicable; and the rules of this 
Standard that reference each document (see Table 1.5-1). 
This section also lists the names and addresses of the 
organizations from which these documents may be pro- 
cured (see Table 1.5-2). 

Only that portion of the code, standard, or specifica- 
tion as specified by the rules in this Standard is appli- 
cable. 

2 VERTICAL PLATFORM LIFTS 1 

Section 2 applies to vertical platform lifts installed in 
locations other than in or at a private residence for use 
by the mobility impaired. 

2.1 Runways 

Runways shall be installed in accordance with paras. 
2.1.1, 2.1.2, or 2.1.3. Runway construction for lifts that 
penetrate a floor must comply with para. 2.1.1 and with 
the building code. 



1 See section 5 for the requirements for this equipment installed 
in or at a private residence. 



5 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



(05) 



Table 1.5-1 Reference Documents 



Standard 



A18 References 



Available From 



ANSI A10.4 (latest edition) 
ICC/ANSI A117.M998. 

ASMEA120.1 (latest edition) 

ANSI Z97.M984 

ASME B29.1-1975 



AWS Dl.l (latest edition) 
AWS D1.3 (latest edition) 
NFPA 70 (latest edition) 



NFPA 99 (latest edition) 

ASMEA17.1-1997 (and later edi- 
tions) 

ASME A90.1 (latest edition) 

ASTM A 307-84a 

ASTM A 502-83a 

ASTM D 2412-92 

ASTM E 8 (latest edition) 



CAN/CSA-B44.1 /ASME Al 7.5 (lat- 
est edition) 



16 CFR Part 1201-86 



National Building Code 
(latest edition) 

Standard Building Code 
(latest edition) 

Uniform Building Code (latest 
edition) 



Safety Requirements for Personnel Hoists 

Guidelines for Accessible and Usable Buildings and 
Facilities 

Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for 
Building Maintenance 

Performance Specifications and Methods of Test for 
Safety Glazing Material Used in Buildings 

Precision Power Transmission Roller Chains, Attach- 
ments, and Sprockets 



Structural Welding Code — Steel 
Structural Welding Code — Sheet Steel 
National Electrical Code® 



Standard for Health Care Facilities 
Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators 

Safety Standard for Manlifts 

Specifications for Carbon Steel, Externally and Inter- 
nally Threaded Standard Fasteners 

Specifications for Steel Structural Rivets 

Test Method for Determination of External Loading 
Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel Plate 

Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metal- 
lic Materials 

Elevator and Escalator Electrical Equipment 



Architectural Glazing Standards and Related 
Materials 



1.1.2 


ANSI 


2.1.5, 3.1.4.2, and 


ANSI 


3.10.1 




1.1.2 


ASME 


3.6.4.3 and 6.6.4.3 


ANSI 


2.3.1.5, 2.3.8.1, 3.3.1.5, 


ASME 


3.3.5.1, 4.3.1.2, 4.3.5.1, 




5.3.1.5, 5.3.8.1, 6.3.1.5, 




6.3.5.1, 7.3.1.2, and 




7.3.5.1 




9.1.1 and 9.1.2 


AWS 


9.1.2 


AWS 


2.1.6.1, 2.10.9.1, 


NFPA 


3.1.6.1, 3.10.7.1, 4.1.3, 




4.10.3.1, 5.1.4.1, 




5.10.9.1, 6.1.6.1, 




6.10.6.1, 7.1.3, and 




7.10.3.1 




2.11.3 


NFPA 


1.1.2 


ASME 


1.1.2 


ASME 


2.2.2.2, 3.2.1.1, 5.2.1.1, 


ASTM 


6.2.1.1, and 8.1.2.2 




2.2.2.3, 3.2.1.1, 5.2.1.1, 


ASTM 


and 6.2.1.1 




8.1.4.8 


ASTM 


9.5.1 


ASTM 


2.1.6.2, 2.10.9.2, 


ASME 


3.1.6.2, 3.10.7.2, 4.1.4, 




4.10.3.2, 5.1.4.2, 




5.10.9.2, 6.1.6.2, 




6.10.6.2, 7.1.4, and 




7.10.3.2 




3.6.4.3 and 6.6.4.3 


CPSC 


1.3 


BOCA 


1.3 


SBCCI 


1.3 


ICBO 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



Table 1.5-2 Procurement Information 



(05) 



Organization Address and Phone Number 



Organization 



Address and Phone Number 



ANSI 



ASME 



ASTM 



AWS 



BOCA 



CPSC 



American National Standards Institute, Inc. 
25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor 
New York, New York 10036 
Telephone: (212) 642-4900 
www.ansi.org 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, New York 10016-5990 

Telephone: (212) 591-7722 

www.asme.org 

ASME Order Department 
22 Law Drive 
Box 2300 

Fairfield, New Jersey 07007-2300 
Telephone: (201) 882-1167 
(800) 843-2763 

American Society for Testing and Materials 

100 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 

19428-2959 
Telephone: (610) 832-9500 
www.astm.org 

American Welding Society, Inc. 
550 NW Lejeune Road 
Miami, Florida 33126 
Telephone: (800) 443-9353 
www.aws.org 

Building Officials and Code Administrators 

International, Inc. 
4051 West Flossmoor Road 
Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478 
Telephone: (708) 799-2300 
www.bocai.org 

U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission 
Washington, DC 20207-0001 
Telephone: (301) 504-0990 

(800) 638-2772 

(800) 638-8270 TTY 
www.cpsc.org 



CSA 



DOC 



ICBO 



NFPA 



SBCCI 



UL 



Canadian Standards Association 
5060 Spectrum Way 
Mississauga, Ontario 
L4W 5N6 Canada 
Telephone: (416) 747-4000 
www.csa.ca 

U.S. Department of Commerce 
Commodity Standards Division 
Available from Superintendent of 

Documents 
Government Printing Office 
Washington, DC 20402 
Telephone: (703) 684-0211 
www.commerce.gov 

International Conference of Building 

Officials 
5360 South Workman Mill Road 
Whittier, California 90601 
Telephone: (213) 699-0541 
www.icho.org 

National Fire Protection Association 

1 Batterymarch Park 

P.O. Box 9101 

Quincy, Massachusetts 02269-9101 

Telephone: (617) 770-3000 

www.nfpa.org 

Southern Building Code Congress 

International, Inc. 
900 Montclair Road 
Birmingham, Alabama 35213 
Telephone: (205) 591-1853 
www.sbcci.org 

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 
333 Pfingsten Road 
Northbrook, Illinois 60062-2096 
Telephone: (847) 272-8800 
www.ul.com 



2.1.1 Runway Enclosure Provided 

2.1.1.1 The runway shall be guarded by a solid 
enclosure extending from the lowest landing to a height 
of at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) above the uppermost land- 
ing. The enclosure shall withstand, without permanent 
deformation, a force of 550 N (125 lbf) applied on any 
100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. The interior of 
the runway enclosure shall present a smooth surface. 

2.1.1.2 The runway entrance shall be guarded at 
the upper landing by a door of imperforated construc- 
tion not wider than the platform plus 25 mm (1 in.). The 



door shall be self-closing and at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) 
high. The runway side of the door shall present a smooth 
surface. The door shall be located not more than 75 mm 
(3 in.) from the platform sill. 

2.1.1.3 The runway entrances at all but the upper- 
most landing shall be guarded by imperforated self- 
closing doors not wider than the platform plus 25 mm 
(1 in.). The openings created in the runway by these 
doors shall provide a minimum vertical clearance of 
2 000 mm (80 in.). The doors shall guard the entire area 
of the openings except for space necessary for operation. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
v No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



Space necessary for operation shall reject a ball 12 mm 
(0.5 in.) in diameter. The lift side of the landing doors 
and sill shall present a smooth surface located not closer 
than 10 mm (0.375 in.) nor more than 20 mm (0.75 in.) 
from the platform floor. 

2.1.1.4 All doors shall be provided with a combi- 
nation mechanical lock and electric contact. Locking 
devices shall be protected against tampering from the 
landing side. The locking devices may permit a door to 
be opened only if the platform floor is within 50 mm 
(2 in.) of the respective landing. They shall permit the 
platform to move away from the landing under control 
of the normal operating device if the door is closed 
but not locked, provided that the device will cause the 
platform to stop if it moves away from the landing more 
than 50 mm (2 in.) before the door is locked. Doors shall 
withstand, without permanent deformation, a force of 
550 N (125 lbf ) applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm 
(4 in.) area. 

2.1.1.5 No hardware shall project beyond the ver- 
tical line of travel of the platform, except for that required 
for door locks. 

2.1.1.6 The running clearance between the 
entrance and exit sides of the platform floor and the 
interior of the runway enclosures shall be not less than 
10 mm (0.375 in.) nor more than 20 mm (0.75 mm). 

2.1.1.7 The platform enclosure walls on the sides 
not used for entrance or exit shall be of smooth construc- 
tion to a height of at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) above 
the platform floor with no openings other than those 
necessary for operation. Openings necessary for opera- 
tion shall reject a ball 12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. A 
grab rail extending the full length of either side wall 
shall be provided at a height of 850 mm (34 in.) to 
1 000 mm (38 in.). The running clearance between the 
platform enclosure walls and the runway enclosure shall 
be not less than 50 mm (2 in.) nor more than 75 mm 
(3 in.). 

2.1.1.8 If the runway enclosure extends to a mini- 
mum height of 2 100 mm (84 in.) above the upper land- 
ing, consists of transparent walls, is exposed to direct 
sunlight, and is enclosed with a solid roof, forced ventila- 
tion with a minimum air handling capacity of one air 
change per minute based on net inside enclosure volume 
shall be provided. The ventilation shall be permitted to 
be thermostatically controlled, in which case, it shall be 
set to activate at a temperature not to exceed 32°C (90°F). 
An auxiliary power source capable of providing the min- 
imum air handling capacity for 1 hr shall be provided. 
Ventilating fans or blowers, if used, shall be located 
outside the enclosure, or if inside the enclosure, provide 
a minimum headroom clearance of 2 100 mm (84 in.). 



2.1.2 Partial Runway Enclosure Provided 

2.1.2.1 The area under the platform shall be fully 
enclosed by smooth guards, either telescoping or sta- 
tionary, on all accessible platform sides. The guards shall 
withstand, without permanent deformation, a force of 
550 N (125 lbf) applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm 
(4 in.) area. The height of stationary guards, if provided, 
shall be at least equal to the maximum upward travel 
of the platform floor plus 75 mm (3 in.). The running 
clearance between the platform enclosure walls and any 
stationary guard panel shall be not less than 50 mm 
(2 in.) nor more than 75 mm (3 in.). Shutter-type (tele- 
scoping) guards, if provided, shall be securely fastened 
to the lower landing level and to the platform. Openings 
necessary for operation of shutter-type (telescoping) 
guard panels shall reject a ball 12 mm (0.5 in.) in 
diameter. 

2.1.2.2 The runway entrance shall be guarded at 
the uppermost landing by a door of imperforated con- 
struction not wider than the entrance to the platform 
plus 25 mm (1 in.). The door shall be self-closing and 
at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) high. The door shall be located 
not more than 75 mm (3 in.) from the platform sill. 

2.1.2.3 The runway entrance shall be guarded at 
any intermediate landing by a door of imperforated 
construction not wider than the entrance to the platform 
plus 25 mm (1 in.). The door shall be self-closing and 
extend to a height of at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) above 
the top terminal landing. The lift side of the door and 
sill shall present a smooth surface located not closer 
than 10 mm (0.375 in.) nor more than 20 mm (0.75 in.) 
from the access edge of the platform floor. 

2.1.2.4 The side of the platform providing access 
to the lower landing shall be guarded by a platform 
door of imperforated construction. The door shall be 
self-closing and at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) high. 

2.1.2.5 All doors shall be provided with a combi- 
nation mechanical lock and electric contact. Locking 
devices shall be protected against tampering from the 
landing side. The locking devices shall permit a door to 
be opened only if the platform floor is within 50 mm 
(2 in.) of the respective landing. The platform shall be 
permitted to move away from the landing under control 
of the normal operating device if the door is closed 
but not locked, provided that the device will cause the 
platform to stop if it moves more than 50 mm (2 in.) 
away from the landing before the door is locked. 

2.1.2.6 The platform side of the landing doors and 
sills shall present a smooth surface and shall not project 
beyond the vertical line of travel of the platform. No 
hardware shall project beyond the vertical line of travel 
of the platform, except for that required for door locks 
and electric contacts. The doors shall withstand, without 
permanent deformation, a force of 550 N (125 lbf) 
applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



2.1.2.7 Smooth vertical fascias of unperforated 
construction shall be securely fastened from the top ter- 
minal landing sill and any intermediate landing sill to 
the level of the bottom terminal landing sill. They shall 
be equal to or stronger than 1.5 mm (0.0598 in.) sheet 
steel and guard the full width of the platform floor. The 
fascias shall not be permanently deformed when a force 
of 550 N (125 lbf) is applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 
100 mm (4 in.) area. 

2.1.2.8 The platform enclosure walls on the sides 
not used for entrance or exit shall be of smooth construc- 
tion to a height of at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) above 
the platform floor with no openings, other than those 
necessary for operation. Openings necessary for opera- 
tion shall reject a ball 12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. A 
grab rail extending the full length of either side wall 
shall be provided at a height of 850 mm (34 in.) to 
1 000 mm (38 in.). The running clearance between the 
platform enclosure wall and the vertical face of the 
machine housing shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.) 
nor more than 75 mm (3 in.). Where an obstruction or 
surface less than 1 100 mm (42 in.) above the top landing 
other than machine housing, stationary guard panels, 
shutter type (telescoping) guard panels or sides used 
for entering and exiting is within 300 mm (12 in.) of 
the platform enclosure walls and presents a pinching, 
shearing, or crushing hazard, a smooth continuous sur- 
face shall be provided extending from the lower landing 
to a height of not less than 1 100 mm (42 in.) above the 
top landing. Where an obstruction or surface is between 
1 100 mm (42 in.) and 2 000 mm (80 in.) above the top 
landing, a smooth continuous surface shall be provided 
extending from the lower landing to a height of not less 
than 75 mm (3 in.) above the obstruction. The continuous 
surface shall be located on the lift side of the obstruction 
not closer than 50 mm (2 in.) to the platform enclosure 
walls. 

2.1.3 Runway Enclosure Not Provided 

2.1.3.1 The runway entrance shall be guarded at 
the upper landing by a door of unperforated construc- 
tion. The door shall be self-closing, at least 1 100 mm 
(42 in.) high, and withstand, without permanent defor- 
mation, a force of 550 N (125 lbf) applied on a 100 mm 
(4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. The door shall be located 
not more than 75 mm (3 in.) from the platform sill. 

2.1.3.2 The runway entrance shall be guarded at 
any intermediate landing by a door of unperforated 
construction not wider than the entrance to the platform 
plus 25 mm (1 in.). The door shall be self-closing and 
extend to a height of at least 1 100 mm (42 in.) above 
the top terminal landing. The lift side of the door and 
sill shall present a smooth surface located not closer 
than 10 mm (0.375 in.) nor more than 20 mm (0.75 in.) 
from the access edge of the platform floor. 



2.1.3.3 A smooth vertical fascia shall be provided (05) 
from the top terminal landing sill and any intermediate 
landing sill to the level of the bottom terminal landing 

sill. Openings necessary for operation shall reject a ball 
12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. A device to stop the platform 
if an object protrudes beyond the platform edge into 
the running clearance shall be provided if the fascia is 
perforated. The device used shall be effective for the 
full width of the platform opening and for the full travel 
of the platform. The fascia shall be equal to or stronger 
than 1.5 mm (0.0598 in.) sheet steel and guard the full 
width of the platform. The surface shall not be perma- 
nently deformed when a force of 550 N (125 lbf) is 
applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. 

2.1.3.4 The side of the platform providing access (05) 
to the lower landing shall be guarded in accordance 
with the requirements of para. 2.1.3.4.1 or 2.1.3.4.2. 

2.1.3.4.1 The lower landing side of the platform 
shall be guarded by a platform door of unperforated 
construction. The door shall be self-closing, at least 
1 100 mm (42 in.) high, and withstand, without perma- 
nent deformation, a force of 550 N (125 lbf) on a 100 mm 
(4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. 

2.1.3.4.2 The lower landing side of the platform 
shall be guarded by a powered, retractable passenger 
restraining arm(s) conforming to the following: 

(a) The arm(s) shall be located above the leading edge 
of the platform on the lower landing side at a height of 
not less than 800 mm (32 in.) or greater than 1 000 mm 
(38 in.). Gaps between the adjacent ends of arm sections 
or the end of arm sections and the lift sidewall shall not 
exceed 100 mm (4 in.) when the arms are in their guard- 
ing position. 

(b) The arm(s) shall be of smooth construction with all 
edges rounded. They shall not be permanently deformed 
when a force of 300 N (66 lbf) is applied on any point 
along the length of the arms in any direction. In addition, 
they shall not be permanently deformed when a force 
of 1 000 N (225 lbf) is applied in the horizontal direction 
along the center line of the platform. 

(c) Each retractable arm shall be mechanically locked 
and monitored by an electric contact, which shall stop 
the movement of the platform within 50 mm (2 in.) of 
travel away from any landing if the arm is not in its 
locked guarding position. Means shall be provided to 
manually unlock the retractable arm(s) for emergency 
evacuation purposes. The unlocking mechanism shall 
not be readily accessible to the passenger. 

(d) Control shall be by means of a continuous pressure 
device. The closing speed shall not exceed 0.3 m/s 
(1 ft/sec) as measured at the fastest point. The force 
necessary to prevent closing of the arm(s) shall not 
exceed 140 N (30 lbf) as measured at the mid-point 
across the arm at the boarding end of the platform. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASMEA18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



The arm(s) may operate in the direction away from an 
obstruction. 

(e) A retractable ramp shall be provided in confor- 
mance with para. 2.1.5.2. 

2.1.3.5 The sides of the platform not used for 
entrance or exit shall be guarded by walls of smooth 
construction with no openings, other than those neces- 
sary for the operation of the lift, to a height of at least 
1 100 mm (42 in.). Those openings necessary for opera- 
tion shall reject a ball 12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. A 
grab bar extending the full length of either side guard 
shall be provided at a height of 850 mm (34 in.) to 
1000 mm (38 in.). 

(05) 2.1.3.6 The underside of the platform shall be 

guarded in accordance with the requirements of para. 
2.1.3.6.1, 2.1.3.6.2, or 2.1.3.6.3. 

2.1.3.6.1 The underside of the platform shall 
be equipped with a device which, if the platform is 
obstructed in its downward travel by a force not to 
exceed 70 N (15 lbf) applied anywhere on its underside, 
will actuate a minimum of two sensing devices which 
shall cause electric power to be removed from the driv- 
ing machine motor and brake, if provided, and cause 
the platform to stop its downward motion within 50 mm 
(2 in.). The stroke of the device shall not be less than 
the stopping distance of the platform. The lift shall be 
permitted to operate away from the obstruction. Down- 
ward motion shall be permitted to resume when the 
obstruction is removed. 

2.1.3.6.2 The underside of the platform shall be 
equipped with a bellows or similar device that shall not 
be permanently deformed when a force of 550 N (125 
lbf) is applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) 
area. Deflection of the bellows due to a force of 330 N 
(75 lbf) applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) 
area shall not exceed 75 mm (3 in.) or the distance to 
contact an internal moving component other than the 
bellows support mechanism, whichever is less. Deflec- 
tion shall be measured with the platform at uppermost 
landing. 

(a) The upper attachment point of the bellows shall 
be permitted to be inset from the outer edge of the 
platform provided that the exposed area of the under- 
side of the platform is equipped with a device that con- 
forms to para. 2.1.3.6.1. 

(b) Deflection greater than that allowed by para. 
2.1.3.6.2 shall be permitted, provided that any additional 
deflection actuates a sensing device that causes the elec- 
tric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake, if provided, and causes the platform 
to stop its downward motion within 50 mm (2 in.). 
Downward motion shall be permitted to resume when 
the bellows is returned to its normal condition. 



2.1.3.6.3 A force sensitive safety surface shall 
be provided covering the entire floor area directly under 
the moving platform plus 75 mm (3 in.) beyond any 
exposed platform edge. The device shall prevent down- 
ward motion of the platform when activated by a force 
not to exceed 70 N (15 lbf) applied anywhere on its 
surface. The lift shall be permitted to operate in the 
upward direction. Downward motion shall be permitted 
to resume when the force is removed. 

2.1.3.7 The clearance between the platform floor 
and the upper landing sill shall be not less than 10 mm 
(0.375 in.) nor more than 20 mm (0.75 in.). 

2.1.3.8 All doors, except as provided in para. 
2.1.3.9, shall be provided with a combination mechanical 
lock and electric contact. Locking devices shall be pro- 
tected against tampering from the landing side. The 
locking devices shall permit a door to be opened only 
if the platform floor is within 50 mm (2 in.) of the respec- 
tive landing. The platform shall be permitted to move 
away from the landing under control of the normal 
operating device if the door is closed but not locked, 
provided that the devices will cause the platform to stop 
if it moves away from the landing more than 50 mm 
(2 in.) before the door is locked. 

2.1.3.9 Where the lift is installed at a location that 
does not have guard rails at the upper landing as allowed 
by building codes (see definition), the requirements of 
paras. 2.1.3.1, 2.1.3.2, and 2.1.3.3 shall be permitted to 
be omitted when platform gates are provided. They shall 
extend to a height at least equal to the top terminal 
landing height plus 150 mm (6 in.) measured when the 
platform is at its lowest position. The gates shall be of 
imperforated construction, self-closing and be provided 
with electric contacts to prevent movement of the plat- 
form if the gates are not closed. The gates shall not be 
permanently deformed when a force of 550 N (125 lbf) 
is applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. 

2.1.3.10 The requirements of para. 2.1.3.7 shall be 
permitted to be increased to 75 mm (3 in.) if a platform 
gate complying with para. 2.1.3.9 and an automatically 
folding ramp to service the upper landing is provided. 
When deployed, the ramp shall have a minimum overlap 
at the upper landing sill of 50 mm (2 in.) and shall be 
substantially level. It shall be provided with an electric 
contact, which will stop the movement of the platform 
within 150 mm (6 in.) of travel away from the upper 
landing if the ramp has failed to rise to its retracted 
position. 

2.1.4 Pipes in Runway Vicinity. Pipes conveying 
steam, gas, or liquids that, if discharged into the runway, 
would endanger life or health shall not be permitted. 

2.1.5 Lower Level Access Ramps and Pits. Lifts shall 
be permitted to have a pit. Unenclosed pits shall not 
exceed 100 mm (4 in.) in depth. Where a pit is not 



10 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



provided, a floor mounted or retractable platform floor 
mounted ramp shall be provided in accordance with 
para. 2.1.5.1 or 2.1.5.2. 

2.1.5.1 Ramping inclinations for floor mounted 
ramps shall be not greater than 

(a) 1 in 8 for heights up to 75 mm (3 in.) 

(b) 1 in 10 for heights up to 100 mm (4 in.) 

(c) 1 in 12 for heights greater than 100 mm (4 in.) 

2.1.5.2 Retractable ramps shall be automatically 
actuated and shall remain in their elevated position until 
the platform returns to the landing. When in use, the 
inclination of the ramps shall not be greater than 

(a) 1 in 4 for heights up to 50 mm (2 in.) 

(b) 1 in 6 for heights up to 65 mm (2.5 in.) 

(c) 1 in 8 for heights up to 75 mm (3 in.) 

(d) 1 in 10 for heights up to 100 mm (4 in.) 

(e) 1 in 12 for heights greater than 100 mm (4 in.) 

2.1.6 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

2.1.6.1 The installation of electrical equipment 
and wiring shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ 
NFPA 70. 

2.1.6.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

2.1.7 Structural Support. The structure on which the 
equipment is installed shall be capable of safely support- 
ing the loads imposed. 

2.1.8 Headroom Clearance. Headroom clearance 
throughout the range of travel shall be not less than 
2 000 mm (80 in.) as measured vertically from the plat- 
form floor. 

2.2 Guide Rails 

Guide rails shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
2.2.1 through 2.2.7. Where tee rails are provided they 
shall also conform to the requirements of paras. 2.2.8 
and 2.2.9. Rail joints shall be designed to maintain the 
accuracy of the rail alignment and to withstand the stress 
and deflection limitations stipulated in para. 2.2.4. 

2.2.1 Material. Guide rails, guide-rail brackets, rail 
clips, fishplates, and their fastenings shall be of steel or 
other metals conforming to the requirements of para. 
2.2. Where steel may present an accident hazard, as in 
chemical or explosive plants, guide rails shall be permit- 
ted to be of selected wood or other suitable nonmetallic 
materials. 

2.2.2 Requirements for Steel, Where Used 

2.2.2.1 Rails, brackets, fishplates, and rail clips 
shall be made of open-hearth steel or its equivalent hav- 
ing a tensile strength of not less than 380 MPa (55,000 
psi) and having an elongation of not less than 22% in a 
length of 50 mm (2 in.). 



2.2.2.2 Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307. 

2.2.2.3 Rivets shall conform to ASTM A 502. 

2.2.3 Requirements for Metals Other Than Steel. Met- 
als other than steel shall be permitted to be used pro- 
vided the factor of safety is not less than, and the 
deflections are not more than, the values specified in 
this section, and provided that cast iron is not used. 

2.2.4 Stresses and Deflections 

2.2.4.1 Guide Rails. For steels conforming to the 
requirements of para. 2.2.2, the stresses in a guide rail 
or in the rail and its reinforcement, due to the horizontal 
forces imposed on the rail during loading, unloading or 
running, calculated without impact, shall not exceed 
100 MPa (15,000 psi), and the deflection shall not exceed 
6 mm (0.25 in.). 

Where steels of greater strength than those specified 
in para. 2.2.2 are used, the stresses specified shall be 
permitted to be increased proportionately based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths. 

2.2.4.2 Brackets, Fastenings, and Supports. The 

guide-rail brackets, their fastenings and supports, such 
as building beams and walls, shall be capable of resisting 
the horizontal forces imposed by rated load with a total 
deflection to the point of support not in excess of 3 mm 
(0.125 in.). 

2.2.5 Guide-Rail Surfaces. Guide-rail surfaces used 
for guiding a platform or counterweight shall be suffi- 
ciently smooth and true to operate properly with the 
guiding members. Those surfaces that the platform or 
counterweight safeties engage shall be smooth and true 
within the tolerances required to ensure proper safety 
application without excessive retardation or excessive 
out-of-level platform floor conditions resulting. 

2.2.6 Overall Length of Guide Rails. The platform and 
counterweight guide rails shall extend at the top and 
bottom to prevent the guiding members from disengag- 
ing from the guide rails if either the platform or counter- 
weight reaches its extreme limit of travel. 

2.2.7 Design and Strength of Brackets and Supports? 

The building construction forming the supports for the 
guide rails, and the guide-rail brackets, shall be designed 
to safely withstand the application of the platform or 
counterweight safety when stopping the platform and 
its rated load or the counterweight; and withstand the 
forces specified in para. 2.2.4.2 within the deflection 
limits specified. 

Where necessary, the building construction shall be 
reinforced to provide adequate support for the guide 
rails. 



2 Runway-enclosure walls of bricks, terra cotta, and similar mate- 
rials, used in buildings of steel and concrete construction, are 
usually insufficient in strength to form by themselves adequate 
supports for the guide rails. 



11 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



2.2.8 Bracket Fastenings. Guide-rail brackets shall be 
secured to their supporting structure by means of bolts 
or rivets, or by welding. Fastening bolts and bolt holes 
in brackets and their supporting beams shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 2.2.9. Welding, where used, 
shall conform to the requirements of para. 9.1. 

2.2.9 Fastening of Guide Rails to Rail Brackets. Guide 
rails shall be secured to their brackets by clips, welds, 
or bolts. Bolts used for fastening shall be of such strength 
as to withstand the forces specified in paras. 2.2.4.2 
and 2.2.7. 

Welding, where used, shall conform to the require- 
ments of para. 9.1. 

2.3 Driving Means and Sheaves 

The driving means shall be one of the following: 

(a) winding drum 

(b) traction 

(c) roped sprocket 

(d) chain sprocket 

(e) screw 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) direct-plunger hydraulic 
(h) roped-hydraulic 

(i) lever hydraulic 

(j) friction 

Driving means utilizing a combination of two or more 
means shall conform to all applicable requirements of 
the respective means unless stated otherwise. 

2.3.1 General Requirements 

2.3.1.1 The factor of safety, based on the static 
load (the rated load plus the weight of the platform, 
ropes, counterweights, etc.), to be used in the design 
of driving machines and sheaves, including fasteners 
transmitting load, shall not be less than 8 for steel, 
bronze, or other metals having an elongation of less than 
14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) or 10 for cast iron or 
other metals having an elongation of less than 14% in 
a length of 50 mm (2 in.). Other factors of safety for 
specific driving means are further specified in section 8. 

2.3.1.2 Set screws or threaded portions located in 
the shear plane of bolts and screws shall not be used to 
transmit load. 

Means shall be provided to ensure that there is not 
relative motion between rigidly joined components 
transmitting load. 

Where flexible couplings are used to transmit load, 
means shall be provided to prevent disengagement of 
the coupling components in the event of failure or exces- 
sive motion in the flexible connection. 

A fillet shall be provided at any point of change in the 
diameter of driving-machine shafts and sheave shafts to 
prevent excessive stress concentrations in the shafts. 



Shafts that support drums, sheaves, gears, couplings, 
and other members, and which transmit torque, shall 
be provided with tight-fitting keys. 

2.3.1.3 Friction gearing, clutch mechanisms, or 
couplings shall not be used to connect a driving machine 
drum or sheave to the main driving mechanism. 

2.3.1.4 Worm gearing having cast iron teeth shall 
not be used on the driving machine. 

2.3.1.5 Driving-machine chains and sprockets 
shall be of steel and shall conform in design and dimen- 
sions to the requirements of ANSI/ ASME B29.1. 

2.3.1.6 Winding drums, traction sheaves, over- 
head sheaves, and deflecting sheaves used with suspen- 
sion and compensating ropes shall be of metal, shall be 
provided with finished grooves for ropes, or shall be 
permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove material, 
and have a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times the 
diameter of the suspension ropes. Where 8 x 19 steel 
rope or 7 x 19 steel aircraft cable is used the pitch 
diameter of the drums and sheaves shall be permitted to 
be reduced to 21 times the diameter of the rope or cable. 

Where the grooves are used to transmit power, suffi- 
cient traction shall be provided between the rope and 
groove, and in the event of nonmetallic lining failure, 
between the rope and the remaining sheave groove, to 
safely stop and hold the platform with 125% of the 
rated load. 

2.3.2 Hydraulic Driving Machines. Direct-plunger 
hydraulic driving machines, where used, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 8.1, except para. 8.1.2. 

Roped-hydraulic machines shall also conform to the 
requirements of para. 8.1 except for paras. 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 
8.1.4.3, and 8.1.4.7. 

2.3.3 Screw Machines. Screw machines, where used, 
shall conform to para. 8.2. 

2.3.4 Friction Machines. Friction machines, where 
used, shall conform to para. 8.3. 

2.3.5 Machine Framework and Base. The machine 
framework, base, and fastenings to the buildings where 
used, shall be of metal construction, have a factor of 
safety of not less than 5 based on the rated load, and 
shall be secured in place with support provided to limit 
their deflections to 6 mm (0.25 in.) maximum in any 
direction under rated load. Cast iron shall not be used. 

2.3.6 Guiding Member Enclosures. The guiding mem- 
bers shall be enclosed with a solid enclosure to prevent 
accidental contact. If openings are necessary in this 
enclosure for operation, they shall reject a ball 20 mm 
(0.75 in.) in diameter. 

2.3.7 Machinery Beams and Supports 

2.3.7.1 All machinery and sheaves shall be so sup- 
ported and secured to prevent any part becoming loose 



12 



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\ No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



or displaced. Beams directly supporting machinery shall 
be of steel or reinforced concrete. 

2.3.7.2 Overhead beams and sheaves shall be 
designed for not less than the total load on overhead 
beams, which shall be assumed to be equal to the weight 
of all apparatus resting on the beams plus twice the 
maximum load suspended from the beams. The load 
resting on the beams shall include the complete weights 
of the driving machine, sheaves, controller, etc. The load 
suspended from the beams shall include the sum of the 
tensions in all ropes suspended from the beams. 

2.3.7.3 The driving machine or sheaves, except 
idlers or deflecting sheaves with their guards and 
frames, shall not be fastened to the underside of the 
supporting beams at the top of the runway. 

2.3.7.4 Cast iron in tension shall not be used for 
supporting members for sheaves where they are hung 
beneath beams. 

2.3.8 Guarding of Driving Machines and Suspension 
Means. The driving machine and suspension means 
shall be enclosed with a solid enclosure. Any opening 
required for operation shall reject a ball 20 mm (0.75 in.) 
in diameter. Access shall be provided by a removable 
panel for inspecting and servicing. The panel shall be 
screwed, locked, or bolted in place. 

2.3.9 Indirect-Drive Machines. Indirect-drive ma- 
chines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or drive 
chains, shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
2.3.9.1, 2.3.9.2, and 2.3.9.3, except that the requirements 
of para. 2.3.9.2 shall be permitted to be omitted if a self- 
locking drive meeting the requirements of para. 2.4.3 is 
provided. If multiple belts or chains are provided, they 
shall be preloaded and matched for length in sets. 

2.3.9.1 General Requirements. Belt sets shall be 
selected on the basis of the manufacturer's rated break- 
ing strength and a factor of safety of 10. Chain and 
sprocket sets shall be selected on the basis of recommen- 
dations set forth in the Supplementary Information sec- 
tion of ANSI/ ASME B29.1, using a service factor of 2. 
Offset links in chain are not permitted. 

Sprockets in a chain drive set and also a driven set 
shall be assembled onto a common hub, with teeth cut 
in-line after assembly to ensure equal load distribution 
on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive shall be 
constructed in a manner to ensure equal load distribu- 
tion on each belt in the set. Load determination for both 
the belt and chain sets shall be based on the maximum 
static loading on the platform, which is the full load in 
the platform at rest and at a position in the runway that 
creates the greatest load, including either the platform 
or counterweight resting on its buffer. 

Chain drives and belt drives shall be guarded to pro- 
tect against accidental contact and to prevent foreign 
objects from interfering with drives. 



2.3.9.2 Monitoring and Brake Location. Each belt or 
chain in a set shall be continuously monitored by a 
broken belt or chain device that shall function to auto- 
matically interrupt power to the machine and apply the 
brake if any belt or chain in the set breaks or becomes 
excessively slack. The driving machine brake shall be 
located on the traction sheave or drum assembly side 
of the driving machine so as to be fully effective if the 
entire belt set or chain set should break. 

2.3.9.3 Replacement of Belts or Chains. If one belt 
or chain of a set is worn, stretched, or damaged so as 
to require replacement, the entire set shall be replaced. 
Sprockets and toothed sheaves shall also be replaced if 
worn. 

2.4 Driving Machine Brakes 

2.4.1 Driving machines, except hydraulic, shall be 
equipped with friction brakes directly attached to the 
driving means through a continuous shaft, mechanical 
coupling, or toothed gearing applied by springs, or by 
gravity, and released electrically. 

2.4.2 A single ground or short circuit, a counter- 
voltage or a motor-field discharge shall not prevent the 
brake magnet from allowing the brake to set when the 
operating device is placed in the stop position. 

2.4.3 A machine brake is not required if a self-locking 
drive utilizing a lead screw, worm, or other positive 
gearing that will stop and hold the platform with the 
rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of down travel after 
the power is removed is provided. 

2.5 Suspension and Support Means 
2.5.1 General Requirements 

2.5.1.1 Suspension and support means shall be (05) 
one or more of the following: 

(a) steel or iron wire rope 

(b) steel aircraft cable 

(c) chain 

(d) hydraulic 

(e) rack and pinion 

(f) screw 

(g) friction machine guides and rollers 
(h) lever 

Suspension and support means utilizing a combina- 
tion of two or more means shall conform to all applicable 
requirements of the respective means unless stated 
otherwise. 

2.5.1.2 Steel tapes or welded link chains shall not 
be used as suspension means. 

2.5.1.3 Where ropes or chains are used, no fewer 
than two shall be provided. 

2.5.1.4 For rated loads up to 230 kg (500 lb), ropes 
shall have a minimum diameter of 6 mm (0.25 in.) and 



13 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



chains shall have a minimum pitch of 12 mm (0.5 in.). 
For higher rated loads, ropes shall have a minimum 
diameter of 10 mm (0.375 in.) and chains shall have a 
minimum pitch of 15 mm (0.625 in.). 

(05) 2.5.2 Factors of Safety. The suspension and support 
means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7 
based on the tension or forces exerted on the suspension 
and support means when raising the rated load. When 
the platform and counterweight are suspended by steel 
ropes and the driving means between the machine and 
the counterweight is an endless roller-type chain, the 
factor of safety of such chain shall be not less than 8, 
based on the rated load. See section 8 for special require- 
ments for particular drive systems. 

2.5.3 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on Sheaves 
and Sprockets. The arc of contact of a wire rope on a 
traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce adequate 
traction under all load conditions. The arc of contact of 
a chain on a driving sprocket shall be not less than 
140 deg. 

2.5.4 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums. All wire 
ropes of winding drum machines shall have not less 
than one full turn of the rope on the drum when the 
platform or counterweight has reached its limit of possi- 
ble overtravel. 

2.5.5 Securing Suspension Ropes to Winding Drums. 

The drum ends of wire ropes shall be secured on the 
inside of the drum of winding drum machines by clamps 
or by tapered babbitted sockets, or by other means 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

2.5.6 Lengthening, Splicing, Repairing, or Replacing 
Suspension Means. Suspension ropes shall not be 
lengthened or repaired by splicing. Broken or worn sus- 
pension chains shall not be repaired. If one rope or chain 
of a set is worn or damaged and requires replacement, 
the entire set of ropes or chains shall be replaced. If a 
chain or sprocket is replaced due to wear, all chains and 
sprockets shall be replaced. 

2.5.7 Fastening of Rope Suspension Means to Plat- 
form. The platform ends of wire ropes shall be fastened 
in a return loop by properly made individual tapered 
babbitted sockets or properly attached fittings as recom- 
mended by wire rope manufacturers. Clips of the U- 
bolt type shall not be used. Tapered babbitted rope sock- 
ets and the method of babbitting shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 9.8. 

2.5.8 Guarding. All suspension means shall be 
guarded against accidental contact. Suspension means 
that operate within a guide or track and travel at the 
same speed and in the same direction as the platform 
shall be considered suitably guarded. 



2.6 Platforms 

2.6.1 Frame and Floor. The frame shall be of metal 
construction and have a factor of safety of not less than 
5 based on the rated load. The floor shall be of metal 
or wood construction with a nonskid surface. 

2.6.2 Securing of Enclosures. The enclosure shall be 
securely fastened to the floor and so supported that it 
cannot loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, 
on the application of the platform safety, or on buffer 
engagement. The enclosure shall be so constructed that 
removable portions cannot be dismantled from within 
the platform. 

Enclosure linings, decorative panels, light fixtures, 
and other apparatus or equipment attached to the enclo- 
sure shall be securely fastened and so supported that 
they will not loosen or become displaced in ordinary 
service, on platform safety application, or on buffer 
engagement. 

Panels attached to the enclosure for decorative or 
other purposes shall not be unfastened from inside the 
platform by the use of common tools or shall be permit- 
ted to be removed from inside the platform when perfo- 
rations, exceeding that which would reject a ball 12 mm 
(0.5 in.) in diameter, in the enclosure used for panel 
hanging or support have permanent means to prevent 
straight through passage beyond the running clearance. 

2.6.3 Strength and Deflection of Enclosure Walls. The 

enclosure walls shall be designed and installed to with- 
stand a force of 330 N (75 lbf ) applied horizontally at any 
point on the walls of the enclosure without permanent 
deformation nor cause the deflection to exceed 25 mm 
(1 in.). 

2.6.4 Use of Cast Iron. Cast iron shall not be used in 
the construction of any load bearing member of the 
platform frame or floor other than for guide shoes and 
guide shoe brackets. 

2.6.5 Floor Area. The inside net floor area shall not 
exceed 1.7 m 2 (18 ft 2 ). 

2.6.6 Illumination 

2.6.6.1 At the threshold of the floor, with the land- 
ing door open, the minimum illumination shall be not 
less than 50 lx (5 fc). 

2.6.6.2 During operation, the minimum illumina- 
tion on the floor and controls shall be not less than 50 lx 
(5 fc). 

2.6.6.3 An auxiliary illumination source to pro- 
vide general illumination of not less than 2.2 lx (0.2 fc) 
on the floor and controls shall be provided. 

The auxiliary system shall be automatically activated 
when normal illumination power fails and shall be capa- 
ble of maintaining the above illumination intensity for 
a period of not less than 4 hr and shall use no fewer 
than two lamps of approximately equal wattage. 



14 



C 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



In Case Of Fire 
Do Not Use Lift 




O 

WHITE 




BLACK 




RED 



Fig. 2.6.7 Platform Lift Corridor Call Station Pictograph 



2.6.7 Protection of Platforms Against Fire. For lifts 
that penetrate a floor, and when fire resistive runway 
enclosure construction is required by building code, the 
underside of wood platforms, the exposed surfaces of 
wood platform stringers, and edges of laminated plat- 
forms shall be protected against fire by one of the follow- 
ing methods: 

(a) covering with sheet steel of 0.4 mm (0.0164 in.) in 
thickness or with equally fire-retardant material. 

(b) painting with an approved fire-retardant paint 
having a flame spread rating of not over 50, applied in 
accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer. 
Such ratings shall be based on the test procedure speci- 
fied in ANSI/ASTM E 84. 

A pictograph as shown in Fig. 2.6.7 should be posted 
over each platform lift corridor call station. The picto- 
graph is 125 mm (5 in.) wide and 200 mm (8 in.) high. 

2.6.8 A full passenger enclosure shall not be per- 
mitted. 



2.6.8.1 Platforms shall be permitted to have a top 
provided the top is non-load-bearing and marked to 
indicate it cannot sustain a load. 

2.7 Capacity, Speed, and Travel 

2.7.1 Limitation of Load, Speed, and Travel. The rated 
load shall be not less than 200 kg (450 lb) nor more than 
340 kg (750 lb). The lift shall be capable of sustaining 
and lowering a load as specified in Fig. 9.7. The rated 
speed shall not exceed 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). The travel 
shall not exceed 4 250 mm (168 in.). Travel of lifts con- 
forming to para. 2.1.3 shall not exceed 1 500 mm (60 in.). 
Platforms with a floor greater than 1.4 m 2 (15 ft 2 ) shall 
have rated load of not less than 340 kg (750 lb). 

2.7.2 Capacity Plates. A capacity plate stating the 
rated load shall be provided by the manufacturer and 
fastened in a conspicuous place. The letters and numer- 
als used shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 



(05) 



15 



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ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



2.7.3 Data Plates. A data plate shall be provided by 
the manufacturer and securely fastened to the machine. 
The plate shall state the rated speed, rated load, weight 
of platform, suspension and support means, date of 
manufacture, and manufacturer's name. Letters and 
numerals shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

2.7.4 Restriction Sign. A sign shall be securely fas- 
tened in a conspicuous place at each landing and on the 
platform. The sign shall state "No Freight" in letters not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) high and shall include the 
international symbol of accessibility. 

(05) 2.8 Safeties and Speed Governors 

All platforms shall be provided with a safety, except 
as permitted in para. 2.8.8. The safety shall be actuated 
by the action of a speed governor or by the breakage or 
slackening of the suspension or support means. Where 
actuation is by a governor, the safety shall be set at a 
maximum speed of 0.4 m/s (75 ft/min). Where actuation 
is by breakage or slackening of the suspension or sup- 
port means, the safety shall be set without delay, and 
independent of the speed governor, if provided. 

Safety parts shall conform to the requirements of 
paras. 2.8.2 and 2.8.3. Where hoisting ropes are used, 
the application of safeties shall conform to the require- 
ments of para. 2.8.4. 

The application and release of safeties shall conform 
to the requirements of paras. 2.8.5, 2.8.6, and 2.8.7. 

2.8.1 Screw Drive Machines. When screw drive 
machines are used, safeties and speed governors con- 
forming to para. 2.8.1 shall be permitted. 

2.8.1.1 The down speed of the platform shall be 
limited with rated load to not over 0.9 m/s (175 ft/min) 
in the event of failure of the driving means. 

2.8.1.2 The fall of the platform in the event of 
failure of the driving nut shall be limited to a distance 
not exceeding 12 mm (0.5 in.), by utilizing a safety nut 
or other equivalent means. 

2.8.1.3 The capability of the alternate safety 
devices described in paras. 2.8.1.1 and 2.8.1.2 to function 
as required shall be verified by engineering tests as 
described in para. 9.6. 

2.8.2 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

2.8.2.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than ?> l / 2t based on the ultimate strength of 
the material, and the materials used shall have an elon- 
gation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

2.8.2.2 Springs shall be permitted to be used in the 
operation of platform or counterweight safeties. Where 



used, and where partially loaded prior to safety opera- 
tion, the loading on the spring shall not produce a fiber 
stress exceeding one-half the elastic limit of the material. 
During operation of the safety, the fiber stress shall not 
exceed 85% of the elastic limit of the material. Helical 
springs, where used, shall be in compression. 

2.8.2.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs shall be 
permitted to be made of cast iron and other metals 
provided such parts have a factor of safety of not less 
than 10. 

2.8.2.4 Rope used as a connection from the safety 
to the governor rope, including rope wound on the 
safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) 
in diameter and shall be made of a corrosion-resistant 
metal. The factor of safety of the rope shall be not less 
than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

2.8.2.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

2.8.2.6 Safety-rope leading-sheave brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood members. 

2.8.3 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor ropes, 
where provided, shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, 
phosphor bronze, or stainless steel. They shall be of a 
regular-lay construction, and not less than 6 mm 
(0.25 in.) in diameter. The factor of safety of governor 
ropes shall be not less than 5. Tiller-rope construction 
shall not be used. 

2.8.4 Type A (Instantaneous) Safeties. On the parting 
of the hoisting ropes (free fall), Type A governor oper- 
ated safeties, where provided, shall apply without 
appreciable delay, and their application shall be inde- 
pendent of the speed action of the governor and of the 
location of the break in the hoisting ropes (inertia appli- 
cation), and shall be permitted to be accomplished by 
the use of a governor and governor rigging having a 
sufficiently high value of inertia to apply the safety on 
free fall independently of the speed action of the gov- 
ernor. 

2.8.5 Means of Application. Safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices 
shall not be used to apply the safeties required by section 
2, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted position. 

2.8.6 Level of Platform Floor on Safety Application. 

The application of a Type A or Type B safety to stop the 
platform, with its rated load centered on each quarter 
of the floor symmetrically with relation to the center 
line of the floor, shall not cause the floor to be out of 
level more than 30 mm/m (0.375 in. /ft) in any direction. 



16 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



2.8.7 Release. When platform safeties are applied, 
no decrease in tension in the governor rope nor motion 
of the platform in the down direction shall release the 
safeties, but such safeties shall be permitted to be 
released by the motion of the platform in the up 
direction. 

(05) 2.8.8 Platform Safety Exceptions. Platform safeties 
are not required for lifts with the following driving 
means: 

(a) direct-plunger hydraulic 

(b) other drives that do not utilize a flexible suspen- 
sion means, provided that the failure of a single drive 
component cannot result in the platform overspeeding 
or the floor going out of level more than 30 mm/m 
(0.375 in. /ft) in any direction, and said failure would 
cause the platform to stop by application of a safety 
switch or equivalent means. 

2.9 Terminal Stopping Devices 

2.9.1 Normal terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 2.9.2 shall be permitted to use mechanically oper- 
ated, magnetically operated, optical, or static-type 
switches. 

Final terminal stopping devices required by para. 2.9.3 
shall use only mechanically operated switches. 

Terminal stopping devices that are located on the plat- 
form or in the runway shall be of the enclosed type and 
securely mounted in such a manner so that horizontal 
movement of the platform shall not affect the operation 
of the device. 

2.9.2 Normal stopping devices operated by the plat- 
form shall be provided, and shall be set to stop the 
platform floor within a tolerance of 12 mm (0.5 in.) 
of the landings under rated loading to zero loading 
conditions. The normal stopping devices shall be permit- 
ted to also serve as the upper and lower terminal stop- 
ping devices. 

2.9.3 Upper and lower final terminal stopping 
devices operated by the platform shall be provided to 
remove power from the motor and brake if provided, 
except as specified in para. 2.9.6. They shall be set to 
stop the platform after it travels past the normal terminal 
stopping device and before striking an obstruction. A 
slack-rope device equipped with a slack-rope switch of 
the enclosed manually reset type, which shall cause the 
electric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake, if provided, if any hoisting rope 
becomes slack, shall be permitted as the lower final 
terminal stopping device. 

2.9.4 Final terminal stopping device switch contacts 
shall be directly opened mechanically. Arrangements 
that depend on a spring, or gravity, or a combination 
thereof, to open the contacts shall not be used. 



2.9.5 The final terminal stopping device shall not 
control the same controller switches as the normal stop- 
ping device unless two or more separate and indepen- 
dent switches are provided, two of which shall be closed 
to complete the driving-machine motor-and-brake cir- 
cuit in either direction of travel. Where a two- or three- 
phase alternating-current driving-machine motor is 
used, these switches shall be of the multi-pole type. 

The control shall be so designed and installed that a 
single ground or short circuit shall be permitted to pre- 
vent either the normal or final stopping device circuits 
from stopping the platform, but not prevent both. 

2.9.6 Final terminal stopping devices are not 
required for direct-plunger or roped hydraulic driving 
machines. Lower final terminal stopping devices are not 
required where the limitations of the machine or runway 
limit the travel of the platform (e.g., a platform at rest 
on the bottom terminal landing). 

2.10 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

2.10.1 Operation. Operation of the lift from the land- 
ings and from the platform shall be controlled by "UP" 
and "DOWN" control switches at all stations, and shall 
be by means of the continuous-pressure type. Controls 
shall be 1 200 mm (48 in.) maximum and 380 mm (15 in.) 
minimum above the platform floor or facility floor or 
ground level. Operating devices shall be designed so 
that both the "UP" and "DOWN" circuits cannot be 
operated at the same time. 

2.10.2 Attendant Operation 

2.10.2.1 Where applicable, and where approved 
by the authority having jurisdiction, the lift shall be 
permitted to be attendant-operated. The attendant shall 
be summoned by means of a clearly labeled attendant- 
call device located at each landing. 

2.10.2.2 The attendant shall operate the platform 
by means of a continuous-pressure switch so located 
that the attendant has full view of the floor area under 
the platform and full view of the platform throughout 
its travel. A manually reset emergency stop switch shall 
also be provided at that location. 

2.10.2.3 No controls, other than an emergency 
stop switch, shall be provided in the platform. 

2.10.3 Control and Operating Circuit Requirements. 

The design and installation of the control and operating 
circuits shall conform to the following. 

2.10.3.1 Control systems that depend on the com- 
pletion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be 
used for interruption of the power and application of 
the machine brake at terminal landings, or for stopping 
the machine when the safety applies. 

2.10.3.2 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop the lift 



17 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



at the terminal landings, they shall be of the restrained 
compression type. 

2.10.3.3 The failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, relay, or contactor to release in the 
intended manner, or the failure of any solid state device 
to operate as intended, or the occurrence of a single 
accidental ground or combination of accidental grounds 
shall not permit the lift to start if this failure renders 
ineffective any electrical protective device. 

2.10.4 Motor Reversal Protection. Where a non- 
instantaneous reversible motor is used, a protective cir- 
cuit or device shall be provided to prevent the motor 
from continuing in the same direction if the reversing 
control is activated. 

2.10.5 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection. Lifts 
having polyphase alternating current power supply 
shall be provided with means to prevent the starting of 
the lift motor if the phase rotation is in the wrong direc- 
tion, or if there is a failure of any phase. 

This protection shall be considered to be provided if a 
reversal of phase of the incoming polyphase alternating 
current power will not cause the lift driving machine 
motor to operate in the wrong direction. 

2.10.6 Emergency Stop Switch. An emergency stop 
switch shall be provided on the platform and located 
in or adjacent to each platform operating panel. When 
opened, this switch shall cause the electric power to be 
removed from the driving-machine motor and brake if 
provided. 

Emergency stop switches shall be of the manually 
opened and closed type and have red operating handles 
or buttons. 

They shall be conspicuously and permanently marked 
"STOP" and indicate the "STOP" and "RUN" positions. 
Switches shall be positively opened mechanically and 
their opening shall not be solely dependent on springs. 

2.10.7 Slack-Rope and Slack-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving Machines. Wind- 
ing drum driving machines with rope suspension shall 
be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually 
reset type that will remove power from the motor and 
brake if the platform is obstructed in its descent and the 
suspension ropes slacken. Lifts with roller chain suspen- 
sion means shall be provided with a slack-chain device 
that will remove power from the motor and brake if the 
platform is obstructed in its descent and the suspension 
means slacken. This device is not required to be of the 
manually reset type if the chain sprockets are guarded 
to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged from 
the sprockets. 

2.10.8 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Brake. Driving-machine brakes shall not be electrically 
released until power has been applied to the driving- 
machine motor. All power feed lines to the brake shall 



be opened and the brake shall apply automatically when 
any operating device in para. 2.10.1 or 2.10.2 is in the 
stop position, and when any electrical protective device 
functions. 

2.10.9 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

2.10.9.1 All electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. 

2.10.9.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

2.10.10 Manual Operations. Means shall be provided 
to permit authorized personnel from a position outside 
the platform to raise or lower the platform manually in 
the event of power failure, unless standby (emergency) 
power is provided. 

2.11 Emergency Signals 

If the platform is installed in an area not visible to 
personnel at all times, emergency signaling devices shall 
be provided in accordance with the requirements of para. 
2.11.1 or 2.11.2. Standby power shall be provided in 
accordance with para. 2.11.3. 

2.11.1 The platform shall be provided with an audi- 
ble signaling device, operable from the emergency stop 
switch, marked also with "ALARM" or from a separate 
switch marked "ALARM," which is located in or adja- 
cent to each platform operating panel. The switch 
marked "ALARM" shall illuminate when actuated. The 
signaling device shall be audible inside the platform 
and outside the runway. The audible signaling device 
shall have a rated sound pressure rating of not less than 
80 dBA nor greater than 90 dBA at 3 000 mm (120 in.) 
and respond without delay after the switch has been 
activated. 

2.1 1.2 The lift shall be provided with a means of two- 
way conversation between the platform and a readily 
accessible point outside the runway which is available 
to emergency personnel (telephone, intercom, etc.). The 
means to activate the two-way conversation system does 
not have to be provided on the platform. 

2.11.3 If the audible signaling device(s), or the 
means of two-way conversation, or both, are normally 
connected to the building power supply they shall auto- 
matically transfer to a source of standby or emergency 
power as required by the applicable building code or, 
where applicable, Standard for Health Care Facilities 
(ANSI/NFPA 99) after the normal power supply fails. 
The power source shall be capable of providing for the 
operation of the audible signaling device and illumina- 
tion of the alarm switch for at least 1 hr, and the means 
of two-way conversation for at least 4 hr. 

2.12 Standby Power 

Lifts equipped with standby power shall comply with 
this rule. 



(05) 



C 



18 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



2.12.1 Standby Power. Except where permitted by 
2.12.1.1, the lift shall be powered by a standby power 
system from the building. 

2.12.1.1 Battery Power. A lift equipped with 
rechargeable battery power capable of cycling the lift 
under full load for five cycles minimum after building 
power is removed shall be permitted. 

(05) 2.13 Code Data Plate 

A data plate shall be provided that indicates the A18.1 
Standard to be used for inspections and tests. The data 
plate shall be in plain view, securely attached on the 
main line disconnect or on the controller. The data plate 
shall be of such material and construction that the letters 
and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied 
to the face shall remain permanently and readily legible. 
The height of the letters and figures shall be not less 
than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

3 INCLINED PLATFORM LIFTS 3 

Section 3 applies to inclined platform lifts installed in 
locations other than in or at a private residence for use 
by the mobility impaired. 

3.1 Runways 

3.1.1 Means of Egress. Lifts shall be installed so that 
the means of egress is maintained as required by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

3.1.2 Clearances. Clearances between the platform 
and adjacent surfaces shall not be less than 20 mm 
(0.75 in.). At no point in its travel shall the edge of the 
platform floor facing the uppermost landing be more 
than 600 mm (24 in.) above a step or landing as measured 
vertically. 

3.1.2.1 Headroom clearance where the platform 
is positioned for boarding shall not be less than 2 000 mm 
(80 in.) as measured vertically from all points on the 
surface of the platform floor. 

3.1.2.2 Headroom clearance during travel shall be 
not less than 1 500 mm (60 in.) as measured vertically 
from any point on the surface of the platform floor. 

(05) 3.1.2.3 If the headroom is less than 2 000 mm 

(80 in.) measured from all points on the platform floor 
surface throughout its travel a caution sign shall be pro- 
vided. The caution sign shall contain the words "CAU- 
TION. LOW OVERHEAD" and "SEAT AND SE ATBELT 
PROVIDED." The caution sign shall be securely fastened 
in a conspicuous place. Letters shall be not less than 
6 mm (0.25 in.) high. 



3 See section 6 for the requirements for this equipment installed 
in or at a private residence. 



3.1.3 Pipes in Runway Vicinity. Pipes conveying 
steam, gas, or liquid that, if discharged into the runway, 
would endanger life or health shall not be permitted. 

3.1.4 Lower Level Access Ramps and Pits. Lifts shall 
be permitted to have a pit. Unenclosed pits shall not 
exceed 100 mm (4 in.) in depth. Where a pit is not 
provided, a floor mounted or retractable platform floor 
mounted ramp shall be provided in accordance with 
para. 3.1.4.1 or 3.1.4.2. 

3.1.4.1 Ramping inclinations for floor mounted 
ramps shall be not greater than 

(a) 1 in 8 for heights up to 75 mm (3 in.) 

(b) 1 in 10 for heights up to 100 mm (4 in.) 

(c) 1 in 12 for heights greater than 100 mm (4 in.) 

3.1.4.2 Retractable ramps shall be automatically 
actuated and shall remain in their elevated position until 
the platform returns to the landing. When in use, the 
inclination of the ramps shall not be greater than 

(a) 1 in 4 for heights up to 50 mm (2 in.) 

(b) 1 in 6 for heights up to 65 mm (2.5 in.) 

(c) 1 in 8 for heights up to 75 mm (3 in.) 

(d) 1 in 10 for heights up to 100 mm (4 in.) 

(e) 1 in 12 for heights greater than 100 mm (4 in.) 

3.1.5 Structural Support. The structure on which the 
lift is installed shall be capable of safely supporting the 
loads imposed. 

3.1.6 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

3.1.6.1 The installation of electrical equipment 
and wiring shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ 
NFPA70. 

3.1.6.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

3.2 Guide Rails and Tracks 

3.2.1 Material. Guide rails shall be of metal con- 
struction. 

3.2.1.1 Requirements for Steel, Where Used. Rails, 
brackets, fishplates, and rail clips shall be made of open- 
hearth steel or its equivalent having a tensile strength 
of not less than 380 MPa (55,000 psi) and having an 
elongation of not less than 22% in a length of 50 mm 
(2 in.). Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307. Rivets shall 
conform to ASTM A 502. 

3.2.1.2 Requirements for Metals Other Than Steel. 

Metals other than steel shall be permitted to be used 
provided the factor of safety is not less than, and the 
deflections are not more than, the values specified in 
section 3, and provided that cast iron is not used. 

3.2.1.3 Guide-Rail Surfaces. Guide-rail surface 
used for guiding a platform or counterweight shall be 
sufficiently smooth and true to operate properly with 



19 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



the guiding members. Those surfaces that the platform 
or counterweight safeties engage shall be smooth and 
true within the tolerances required to ensure proper 
safety application without excessive retardation or 
excessive out-of-level platform conditions resulting. 

3.2.2 Location. The top and bottom ends of each run 
of guide rails shall be so located in relation to the extreme 
positions of travel of the platform that the platform guid- 
ing members cannot travel beyond the ends of the 
guide rails. 

3.2.3 Stresses and Deflections of Guide Rails and 
Their Brackets 

3.2.3.1 Guide Rails. For steels conforming to para. 
3.2.1.1 the stresses in a guide rail or in the rail and its 
reinforcement, due to the horizontal forces imposed on 
the rail during loading, unloading, or running, calcu- 
lated without impact, shall not exceed 100 MPa (15,000 
psi), and the deflection shall not exceed 6 mm (0.25 in.). 

Where steels of greater strength than those specified 
in para. 3.2.1.1 are used, the stresses specified shall be 
permitted to be increased proportionately based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths. 

3.2.3.2 Brackets, Fastenings, and Supports. The 

guide-rail brackets, their fastenings and supports, such 
as building beams and walls, shall be capable of resisting 
the horizontal forces imposed by the rated load with a 
total deflection at the point of support not in excess of 
3 mm (0.125 in.). 

3.2.4 Factor of Safety. The factor of safety used in 
the design of guide rails shall be not less than 5, based 
on the rated load. 

3.2.5 Anchoring. The supporting tracks or guide rails 
shall be securely anchored to the stairs, floor surface, or 
side wall. 

3.3 Driving Means and Sheaves 

The driving means shall be one of the following: 

(a) winding drum 

(b) traction 

(c) roped sprocket 

(d) chain sprocket 

(e) screw 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) direct-plunger hydraulic 
(h) roped-hydraulic 

(i) lever hydraulic 
(j) friction 

3.3.1 General Requirements 

3.3.1.1 The factor of safety, based on the static 
load (the rated load plus the weight of the platform, 
ropes, counterweights, etc.), to be used in the design 
of driving machines and sheaves including fasteners 



transmitting load, shall not be less than 8 for steel, 
bronze, or other metals having an elongation of at least 
14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) or 10 for cast iron or 
other metals having an elongation of less than 14% in 
a length of 50 mm (2 in.). Other factors of safety for 
specific driving means are further specified in section 8. 

3.3.1.2 Set screws or threaded portions located in 
the shear plane of bolts and screws shall not be used to 
transmit load. 

Means shall be provided to ensure that there is no 
relative motion between rigidly joined components 
transmitting load. 

Where flexible couplings are used to transmit load, 
means shall be provided to prevent disengagement of 
the coupling components in the event of failure or exces- 
sive motion in the flexible connection. 

A fillet shall be provided at any point of change in the 
diameter of driving-machine shafts and sheave shafts to 
prevent excessive stress concentrations in the shafts. 

Shafts that support drums, sheaves, gears, couplings, 
and other members, and that transmit torque, shall be 
provided with tight-fitting keys. 

3.3.1.3 Friction gearing, clutch mechanisms, or 
couplings shall not be used to connect a driving machine 
drum or sheave to the main driving mechanism. 

3.3.1.4 Worm gearing having cast iron teeth shall 
not be used on the driving machine. 

3.3.1.5 Driving-machine chains and sprockets 
shall be of steel and shall conform in design and dimen- 
sions to the requirements of ANSI /ASME B29.1. 

3.3.1.6 Winding drums, traction sheaves, over- 
head sheaves, and deflecting sheaves used with suspen- 
sion and compensating ropes shall be of metal, be 
provided with finished grooves for ropes or shall be 
permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove material, 
and have a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times the 
diameter of the suspension ropes. Where 8 x 19 steel 
rope or 7 x 19 steel aircraft cable is used, the pitch 
diameter of the drums and sheaves shall be permitted to 
be reduced to 21 times the diameter of the rope or cable. 

Where the grooves are used to transmit power, suffi- 
cient traction shall be provided between the rope and 
groove, and in the event of nonmetallic lining failure, 
between the rope and the remaining sheave groove, to 
safely stop and hold the platform with 125% of the 
rated load. 

3.3.2 Hydraulic Driving Machines. Direct-plunger 
hydraulic driving machines, where used, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 8.1 except para. 8.1.2. 

Roped-hydraulic machines shall also conform to the 
requirements of para. 8.1, except for paras. 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 
8.1.4.3, and 8.1.4.7. 

3.3.3 Screw Machines. Screw machines, where used, 
shall conform to para. 8.2. 



20 



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SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



3.3.4 Friction Machines. Friction machines, where 
used, shall conform to para. 8.3. 

3.3.5 Location of Power Unit and Alignment and 
Guarding of Sheaves and Sprockets. The power unit shall 
be permitted to be mounted in the platform or placed 
at a remote location. If remotely located, all intervening 
sheaves and sprockets shall be so placed that the rope 
or chain travels in the proper alignment. All sheaves 
and sprockets shall be enclosed or guarded. 

3.3.6 Indirect-Drive Machines. Indirect drive 
machines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or 
drive chains, shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
3.3.6.1, 3.3.6.2, and 3.3.6.3, except that the requirements 
of para. 3.3.6.2 shall be permitted to be omitted if a self- 
locking drive meeting the requirements of para. 3.4.2 is 
provided. If multiple belts or chains are provided, they 
shall be preloaded and matched for length in sets. 

3.3.6.1 General Requirements. Belt sets shall be 
selected on the basis of the manufacturer's rated break- 
ing strength and a factor of safety of 10. Chain and 
sprocket sets shall be selected on the basis of recommen- 
dations set forth in the Supplementary Information sec- 
tion of ANSI/ ASME B29.1, using a service factor of 2. 
Offset links in chain are not permitted. 

Sprockets in a chain drive set and also a driven set 
shall be assembled onto a common hub, with teeth cut 
in-line after assembly to assure equal load distribution 
on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive shall be 
constructed in a manner to assure equal load distribu- 
tion on each belt in the set. Load determination for both 
the belt and chain sets shall be based on the maximum 
static loading on the platform, which is the full load in 
the platform at rest and at a position in the runway that 
creates the greatest load, including either the platform 
or counterweight resting on its buffer. 

Chain drives and belt drives shall be guarded to pro- 
tect against accidental contact and to prevent foreign 
objects from interfering with drives. 

3.3.6.2 Monitoring and Brake Location. Each belt or 
chain in a set shall be continuously monitored by a 
broken belt or chain device that shall function to auto- 
matically interrupt power to the machine and apply 
the brake if any belt or chain in set breaks or becomes 
excessively slack. The driving machine brake shall be 
located on the traction sheave or drum assembly side 
of the driving machine so as to be fully effective if the 
entire belt set or chain set should break. 

3.4 Driving-Machine Brakes 

3.4.1 Driving machines, except hydraulic, shall be 
equipped with electrically released spring applied 
brakes directly attached to the driving means through 
a continuous shaft, mechanical coupling, or toothed 
gearing. A single ground or short circuit, a counter- 
voltage, or a motor-field discharge shall not prevent the 



brake magnet from allowing the brake to set when the 
operating device is placed in the stop position. 

3.4.2 A machine brake is not required if a self-locking 
drive utilizing a lead screw, worm, or other positive 
gearing that will stop and hold the platform with the 
rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of down travel after 
the power is removed is provided. 

3.5 Suspension and Support Means 

3.5.1 General Requirements 

3.5.1.1 Suspension and support means shall be 
one of the following: 

(a) steel or iron wire rope 

(b) steel aircraft cable 

(c) roller chain 

(d) direct-plunger hydraulic 

(e) roped-hydraulic 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) screw 

(h) friction machine guides and rollers 

3.5.1.2 Steel tapes or welded link chains shall not 
be used as suspension means. 

3.5.1.3 Where wire ropes are used, the diameter 
shall not be less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 

3.5.2 Factors of Safety. The suspension and support 
means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7 
based on the tension in the rope, cable, chain, or forces 
exerted on the hydraulic cylinder, screw drive, or rack 
and pinion when raising the rated load. When the plat- 
form and counterweight are suspended by steel ropes 
and the driving means between the machine and the 
counterweight is an endless roller-type chain, the factor 
of safety of such chain shall be not less than 8, based 
on the rated load. See section 8 for special requirements 
for particular drive systems. 

3.5.3 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on Sheaves 
and Sprockets. The arc of contact of a wire rope on a 
traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce adequate 
traction under all load conditions. The arc of contact of 
a chain on a driving sprocket shall be not less than 
140 deg. 

3.5.4 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums. All wire 
ropes of winding drum machines shall have not less 
than one full turn of the rope on the drum when the 
platform or counterweight has reached its limit of possi- 
ble overtravel. 

3.5.5 Securing Suspension Ropes to Winding Drums. 

The drum ends of wire ropes shall be secured by clamps 
on the inside of the drum of winding drum machines 
or by tapered babbitted sockets, or by other means 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 



21 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. & 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^S 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



3.5.6 Lengthening, Splicing, Repairing, or Replacing 
Suspension Means. Suspension wire ropes shall not be 
lengthened or repaired by splicing. Broken or worn sus- 
pension chains shall not be repaired. If one rope or chain 
of a set is worn or damaged and requires replacement, 
the entire set of ropes or chains shall be replaced. If a 
chain or sprocket is replaced due to wear, all chains and 
sprockets shall be replaced. 

3.5.7 Fastening of Rope Suspension Means to Plat- 
form. The platform ends of wire ropes shall be fastened 
in a return loop by properly made individual tapered 
babbitted sockets or properly attached fittings as recom- 
mended by wire rope manufacturers. Clips of the U- 
bolt type shall not be used. Tapered babbitted rope sock- 
ets and the method of babbitting shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 9.8. 

3.5.8 Guarding. All suspension means shall be 
guarded against accidental contact. Suspension means 
that operate within a guide or track and travel at the 
same speed and in the same direction as the platform 
shall be considered suitably guarded. 

3.6 Platforms 

3.6.1 Frame and Floor. The frame shall be of metal 
construction and have a factor of safety of not less than 
5 based on the rated load. The floor shall be of metal 
or wood construction with a nonskid surface. 

3.6.2 Securing of Enclosure. The enclosure shall be 
securely fastened to the floor and so supported that it 
cannot loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, 
on the application of the platform safety, or on buffer 
engagement. The platform enclosure shall be so con- 
structed that removable portions cannot be dismantled 
from within the platform. 

Enclosure linings, decorative panels, light fixtures, 
and other apparatus or equipment attached to the enclo- 
sure shall be securely fastened and so supported that 
they will not loosen or become displaced in ordinary 
service, on platform safety application, or on buffer 
engagement. 

Panels attached to the enclosure for decorative or 
other purposes shall not be unfastened from inside the 
platform by the use of common tools or shall be permit- 
ted to be removed from inside the platform when perfo- 
rations, exceeding that which would reject a ball 12 mm 
(0.5 in.) in diameter, in the enclosure used for panel 
hanging or support have permanent means to prevent 
straight through passage beyond the running clearance. 

3.6.3 Strength and Deflection of Enclosure Walls. The 

enclosure walls shall be designed and installed to with- 
stand a force of 330 N (75 lbf ) applied horizontally at any 
point on the walls of the enclosure without permanent 
deformation nor cause the deflection to exceed 25 mm 
(1 in.). 



3.6.4 Floor Area. The inside floor area shall not exceed 
1.1 m 2 (12 ft 2 ). 

3.6.5 Material. Metals having an elongation less than 
20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) shall not be used in 
the construction of any member of the frame or floor. 

3.6.6 Glass on Platforms. Glass shall be permitted to 
be used on platforms subject to the following. 

3.6.6.1 It shall be installed and guarded so as to 
provide adequate protection for passengers in case the 
glass panels break or are dislodged. 

3.6.6.2 It shall be so mounted in the structure so 
that the structure, including the glass in place, shall 
withstand the required lift tests without damage. 

3.6.6.3 Glass greater than 0.1 m 2 (1 ft 2 ) in area and 
abutting panels whose total area is greater than 0.1 m 2 
(1 ft 2 ) shall be laminated glass as defined by ANSI Z97.1 
or 16 CFR, Part 1201, Section 1201.2 or be glass bonded 
to a nonpolymeric coating, sheeting, or film backing 
having a physical integrity to hold the fragments when 
the glass breaks. Glass shall be tested and conform to 
the acceptance criteria for laminated glass as specified 
in ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR, Part 1201, Section 1201.4. The 
glass shall be marked as required by ANSI Z97.1 or 16 
CFR, Part 1201, Section 1201.5. 

3.6.6.4 Markings as specified in ANSI Z97.1 shall 
be on each separate piece of glass, and shall remain 
visible after installation. 

3.6.7 Platform Truck and Guides. The platform shall 
be securely anchored to a truck that supports it. The 
truck shall be retained in a track or on a guide-rail 
assembly. 

3.6.8 Platform Guarding. Platform guarding shall be 
in accordance with para. 3.6.8.1, or in accordance with 
para. 3.6.8.2. 

3.6.8.1 Platform With Enclosure. The platform shall 
be equipped with a self-closing door at least 1 100 mm 
(42 in.) high on the sides of access to the bottom landing. 
The door shall be of solid construction and provided 
with a combination mechanical lock and electric contact 
and shall only be operable within 50 mm (2 in.) of the 
bottom landing. It shall be permitted to allow the plat- 
form to move if the door or gate is in the closed position, 
but not locked, provided the device will stop the plat- 
form if the door or gate fails to lock before the platform 
has moved more than 50 mm (2 in.) away from the 
bottom landing. 

The platform enclosure walls on the sides not used 
for access or exit shall be of smooth construction to a 
height of 1 100 mm (42 in.) above the platform floor with 
no openings, other than those necessary for operation. 
Openings necessary for operation shall reject a ball 
12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. A grab rail extending the 



22 



C 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



full length of either wall shall be provided at a height 
not less than 850 nun (34 in.) or greater than 1 000 mm 
(38 in.) from the platform floor. The running clearance 
between the platform enclosure walls and any adjacent 
surface shall not be less than 50 mm (2 in.). 

3.6.8.2 Platform With Passenger Restraining Arms. 

A grab rail shall be provided at a height not less than 
850 mm (34 in.) or greater than 1 000 mm (38 in.) from 
the platform floor. 

3.6.8.2.1 The side of the platform adjacent to 
the track or guide rail assembly shall be provided with 
a guard of smooth, solid construction and of height 
that shall prevent the seated passenger from making 
accidental contact with moving suspension or driving 
means or moving platform trucks. The guard shall have 
no openings other than those necessary for operation. 
Such openings shall reject a ball 12 mm (0.5 in.) in 
diameter. 

3.6.8.2.2 The non-boarding sides of the platform 
shall be provided with a guard of smooth, solid construc- 
tion and of a height not less than 6 in. (150 mm). 

3.6.8.2.3 The sides of the platform used for 
boarding shall be provided with retractable metal ramps 
of a minimum height of 150 mm (6 in.) measured verti- 
cally from the surface of the platform floor, locked in 
their guarding positions. At a landing, only the retract- 
able ramp serving the landing shall be operable. It shall 
be operable only when the passenger restraining arm 
at the nonboarding end of the platform is in its locked 
guarding position. Retractable ramps shall be mechani- 
cally locked and monitored by an electric contact, which 
shall stop the movement of the platform within 50 mm 
(2 in.) of travel away from the landing if the ramps 
have failed to rise to their elevated position. Retractable 
ramps, in their guarding position, shall withstand, with- 
out permanent deformation, a force of 550 N (125 lbf ) 
applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. 
This force shall not cause the height of the ramp, at any 
point in its length, to be less than 150 mm (6 in.) mea- 
sured vertically from the surface of the platform floor. 

3.6.8.2.4 The platform shall be provided with 
retractable passenger restraining arms conforming to the 
following: 

(a) The arms shall be located above the perimeter of 
the platform floor at not less than 800 mm (32 in.) or 
greater than 1 000 mm (38 in.). Gaps between the adja- 
cent ends of arm sections shall not exceed 100 mm (4 in.) 
when the arms are in their guarding positions. 

(b) The arms shall be of smooth construction with all 
edges rounded. They shall not be permanently deformed 
when a force of 300 N (66 lbf) is applied on any point 
along the length of the arms in any direction. In addition, 
they shall not be permanently deformed when a force 



of 1 000 N (225 lbf) is applied in the horizontal direction 
along the center line of the platform. 

(c) The arms shall be provided in independent sec- 
tions. At landings, the retractable ramp and arm at the 
boarding end of the platform shall be operable only 
when the arm at the non-boarding end of the platform 
is in its locked guarding position. 

id) Each retractable arm shall be mechanically locked 
and monitored by an electric contact, which shall stop 
the movement of the platform within 50 mm (2 in.) of 
travel away from any landing if the arm is not in its 
locked guarding position. Means shall be provided to 
manually unlock the retractable arms for emergency 
evacuation purposes. The unlocking mechanism shall 
not be readily accessible to the passenger. 

(e) Where the retractable arms are power operated, 
control shall be by means of a continuous pressure 
device. The closing speed shall not exceed 0.3 m/s (1 
ft/s) as measured at the fastest point. The force necessary 
to prevent closing of power operated arms shall not 
exceed 140 N (30 lbf) as measured from rest at the mid- 
point across the arm at the boarding end of the platform. 
The arms may operate in the direction away from an 
obstruction. 

3.6.9 Obstruction Devices. The upward and down- 
ward facing edges of the platform floor and the entire 
underside shall be equipped with obstruction devices. 
The obstruction devices shall stop the platform lift from 
traveling in the direction of the obstruction within a 
distance of 2 in. (50 mm) if the obstruction exerts a 
force of 20 N (4 lbf) or more. The platform lift shall be 
permitted to operate in the direction away from the 
obstruction. 

The underside obstruction device shall stop the plat- 
form lift only when the platform lift is obstructed while 
traveling in the down direction. 

3.6.10 The lift shall be provided with a folding seat (05) 
and seatbelt with a rated load of not less than 115 kg 
(250 lb). 

3.7 Capacity, Load, Speed, and Angle of Inclination 

3.7.1 Limitations of Capacity, Load, and Speed. The 

capacity shall be one person. The rated load shall be not 
less than 200 kg (450 lb) and not greater than 340 kg 
(750 lb). The lift shall be capable of sustaining and low- 
ering a load as specified in Fig. 9.7. The rated speed 
measured along the incline shall not exceed 0.15 m/s 
(30 ft/min). 

3.7.2 Limitation of Angle. No lift shall be installed to 
operate on a greater incline than 45 deg as measured 
on the mean. 

3.7.3 Capacity Plate. A capacity plate stating the 
rated load in pounds shall be furnished by the manufac- 
turer and fastened in a conspicuous place on the lift. 



23 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



Letters and numbers shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) 
in height. 

3.7.4 Data Plates. A data plate shall be provided by 
the manufacturer and securely fastened in a conspicuous 
place. The plate shall state the rated speed, rated load, 
suspension or support means, date of manufacture, and 
manufacturer's name. Letters and numerals shall be not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

3.7.5 Restriction Sign. A sign shall be provided at 
each landing and on the platform and shall be securely 
fastened in a conspicuous place. The sign shall state 
"No Freight" in letters not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) high 
and shall include the international symbol of accessi- 
bility. 

3.8 Safeties and Speed Governors 

All platforms shall be provided with a safety, except 
platforms of direct-plunger hydraulic lifts. The safety 
shall be actuated by the action of a speed governor 
or by the breakage or slackening of the suspension or 
support means. Where actuation is by a governor, the 
safety shall be set at a maximum speed of 0.4 m/s 
(75 ft/min). Where actuation is by breakage or slack- 
ening of the suspension or support means, the safety 
shall be set without delay, and independent of the speed 
governor, if provided. 

Safety parts shall conform to the requirements of para. 
3.8.1. Governor ropes, where provided, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 3.8.2. The application and 
release of safeties shall conform to the requirements of 
para. 3.8.3. 

3.8.1 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

3.8.1.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 3 l / 2 , based on the ultimate strength of 
the material, and the materials used shall have an elon- 
gation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

3.8.1.2 Springs shall be permitted to be used in the 
operation of platform or counterweight safeties. Where 
used, and where partially loaded prior to safety opera- 
tion, the loading on the spring shall not produce a fibre 
stress exceeding one-half the elastic limit of the material. 
During operation of the safety, the fibre stress shall not 
exceed 85% of the elastic limit of the material. 

Helical springs, where used, shall be in compression. 

3.8.1.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall be 
permitted to be made of cast iron and other metals 
provided such parts have a factor of safety of not less 
than 10. 



3.8.1.4 Rope used as a connection from the safety 
to the governor rope, including rope wound on the 
safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) 
in diameter and shall be made of a corrosion-resistant 
metal. The factor of safety of the rope shall not be less 
than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

3.8.1.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

3.8.1.6 Safety-rope leading-sheave brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood platform members. 

3.8.2 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor ropes 
shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, phosphor bronze, 
or stainless steel. They shall be of a regular-lay construc- 
tion, and not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The 
factor of safety of governor ropes shall be not less than 
5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

3.8.3 Means of Application. Safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices 
shall not be used to apply the safeties required by this 
section, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted 
position. 

3.8.3.1 Level of Platform Floor on Safety Applica- 
tion. The application of a Type A or Type B safety to 
stop the platform with its rated load centered on each 
quarter of the platform floor symmetrically with relation 
to the center line of the platform floor, shall not cause 
the platform floor to be out of level more than 30 mm/ 
m (0.375 in. /ft) in any direction. 

3.8.3.2 Release. When platform safeties are 
applied, no decrease in tension in the governor rope 
nor motion of the platform in the down direction shall 
release the safeties, but such safeties shall be permitted 
to be released by the motion of the platform in the up 
direction. 

3.9 Terminal Stopping Devices 

3.9.1 Normal terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 3.9.2 shall be permitted to use mechanically oper- 
ated, magnetically operated, optical, or static type 
switches. 

Final terminal stopping devices required by para. 3.9.3 
shall use only mechanically operated switches for 
determining platform position. 

Terminal stopping devices that are located on the plat- 
form or in the runway shall be securely mounted in such 
a manner so that horizontal movement of the platform 
shall not affect the operation of the device. 

3.9.2 Normal stopping devices operated by the plat- 
form shall be provided, and shall be set to stop the 
platform floor within a tolerance of 12 mm (0.5 in.) 



24 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHA1RLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



of the landings under rated loading to zero loading 
conditions. 

3.9.3 Upper and lower final terminal stopping 
devices operated by the platform shall be provided to 
remove power from the motor and the brake if provided, 
except as specified in para. 3.9.6. They shall be set to 
stop the platform after it travels past the normal terminal 
stopping device and before striking an obstruction. A 
slack-rope device equipped with a slack-rope switch of 
the enclosed manually reset type, which shall cause the 
electric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake, if provided, if any hoisting rope 
becomes slack, shall be permitted to be used as the lower 
final terminal stopping device. 

3.9.4 Final terminal stopping devices shall be 
mechanically operated. The switch contacts shall be 
directly opened mechanically. Arrangements that 
depend on a spring, or gravity, or a combination thereof 
to open the contacts shall not be used. 

3.9.5 The final terminal stopping device shall not 
control the same controller switches as the normal termi- 
nal stopping device unless two or more separate and 
independent switches are provided, two of which shall 
be closed to complete the driving-machine motor-and- 
brake circuit in either direction of travel. Where a two- 
or three-phase alternating-current driving-machine 
motor is used, these switches shall be of the multipole 
type. 

The control shall be so designed and installed that a 
single ground or short circuit shall be permitted to allow 
either, but not prevent both, the normal and final stop- 
ping device circuits from stopping the platform. 

3.9.6 Final terminal stopping devices are not 
required for direct-plunger hydraulic driving machines. 
Lower final terminal stopping devices are not required 
where the limitations of the machine or runway limit 
the travel of the platform (e.g., a platform at rest on the 
bottom terminal landing). 

3.10 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

3.10.1 Operation. Operation of the lift from the land- 
ings and from the platform shall be controlled by "UP" 
and "DOWN" control switches at all stations, and shall 
be by means of the continuous-pressure type. Controls 
shall be 1 200 mm (48 in.) maximum and 380 mm (15 in.) 
minimum above the platform floor or facility floor or 
ground level. Controls shall be located within forward 
or side reach of the passenger as defined in ANSI A117.1. 
Operating devices shall be designed so that both the 
"UP" and "DOWN" circuits cannot be operated at the 
same time. 

3.10.2 Attendant Operation 

3.10.2.1 Where applicable, and where approved 
by the authority having jurisdiction, the lift shall be 



permitted to be attendant-operated. The attendant shall 
be summoned by means of clearly labeled attendant call 
stations placed at each landing. 

3.10.2.2 The attendant shall operate the lift by 
means of a continuous-pressure switch located in a con- 
trol box on the free end of a detachable, flexible cord 
not more than 1 500 mm (60 in.) in length. A manually 
reset emergency stop switch shall also be provided in 
the control box. 

3.10.2.3 No controls, other than an emergency 
stop switch, shall be provided on the lift. 

3.10.2.4 Where the lift operates on a straight flight 
of stairs, and where the platform is within sight during 
its entire travel, provisions shall be permitted to be made 
for the attendant to operate the lift from the top or 
bottom of the stairs. 

3.10.3 Control and Operating Circuit Requirements. 

The design and installation of the control and operating 
circuits shall conform to the following. 

3.10.3.1 Control systems that depend on the com- 
pletion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be 
used for interruption of the power and application of 
the machine brake at terminal landings or stopping the 
machine when the safety applies. 

3.10.3.2 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop the lift 
at the terminal landing, they shall be of the restrained 
compression type. 

3.10.3.3 The failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, relay, or contactor to release in the 
intended manner, or the failure of any solid state device 
to operate as intended, or the occurrence of a single 
accidental ground or combination of accidental grounds 
shall not permit the lift to start if this failure renders 
ineffective any electrical protective device. 

3.10.4 Motor Reversal Protection. Where a non- 
instantaneous reversible motor is used, a protective cir- 
cuit or device shall be provided to prevent the motor 
from continuing in the same direction if the reversing 
control is activated. 

3.10.5 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection. Lifts 
having polyphase alternating current power supply 
shall be provided with means to prevent the starting of 
the lift motor if the phase rotation is in the wrong direc- 
tion, or if there is a failure of any phase. This protection 
shall be considered to be provided if a reversal of phase 
of the incoming polyphase alternating current power 
will not cause the driving machine motor to operate in 
the wrong direction. 

3.10.6 Emergency Stop Switch. An emergency stop 
switch shall be located within reach of the passenger 
whether sitting in a wheelchair or sitting on the folding 



25 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



seat and located 1 200 mm (48 in.) maximum and 
380 mm (15 in.) minimum above the platform floor. 
When opened, this switch shall cause the electric power 
to be removed from the driving-machine motor and 
brake. Emergency stop switches shall be of the manually 
opened and closed type and have red operating handles 
or buttons. They shall be conspicuously and perma- 
nently marked "STOP" and shall indicate the /'STOP" 
and "RUN" positions. Switches shall be positively 
opened mechanically and their opening shall not be 
solely dependent on springs. 

3.10.7 Slack-Rope and Slack-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving Machines. Wind- 
ing drum driving machines with rope suspension shall 
be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually 
reset type that will remove power from the motor and 
brake if the platform is obstructed in its descent and the 
suspension ropes slacken. Lifts with roller chain suspen- 
sion means shall be provided with a slack-chain device, 
which will remove power from the motor and brake if 
the platform is obstructed in its descent and the suspen- 
sion means slacken. This device is not required to be of 
the manually reset type if the chain sprockets are 
guarded to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged 
from the sprockets. 

3.10.8 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Brake. Driving-machine brakes shall not be electrically 
released until power has been applied to the driving- 
machine motor. All power feed lines to the brake shall 
be opened, and the brake shall apply automatically 
when any operating device in para. 3.10.1 or 3.10.2 is 
in the stop position and when any electrical protective 
device functions. 

3.10.9 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

3.10.9.1 All electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. 

3.10.9.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

3.10.10 Manual Operations. Means shall be provided 
to permit authorized personnel from a position outside 
the platform to raise or lower the platform manually in 
the event of power failure, unless standby (emergency) 
power is provided. 

3.11 Emergency Signal 

If the lift is installed in an area not visible to personnel 
at all times, emergency signaling devices shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the requirements of para. 3.11.1 
or 3.11.2. 

3.11.1 The lift shall be provided with an audible 
signaling device, operable from the emergency stop 
switch, marked also with "ALARM" or from a separate 



switch marked "ALARM," which is located in or adja- 
cent to each platform operating panel. The switch 
marked "ALARM" shall illuminate when actuated. The 
signaling device shall be audible inside the platform 
and outside the runway The audible signaling device 
shall have a rated sound pressure rating of not less than 
80 dBA nor greater than 90 dBA at 3 000 m (120 in.) 
and respond without delay after the switch has been 
activated. 

3.1 1.2 The lift shall be provided with means of two- 
way conversation between the platform and a readily 
accessible point outside the runway that is available to 
emergency personnel (telephone, intercom, etc.). The 
means to activate the two-way conversation system does 
not have to be provided on the platform. 

3.12 Standby Power (05) 

Lifts equipped with standby power shall comply with 
this rule. 

3.12.1 Standby Power. Except where permitted by 
para. 3.12.1.1 the lift shall be powered by a standby 
power system from the building. 

3.12.1.1 Battery Power. A lift equipped with 
rechargeable battery power capable of cycling the lift 
under full load for five cycles minimum after building 
power is removed shall be permitted. 

3.13 Code Data Plate (05) 

A code data plate shall be provided that indicates the 
A18.1 Standard to be used for inspections and tests. The 
data plate shall be in plain view, securely attached on 
the main line disconnect or on the controller. The data 
plate shall be of such material and construction that the 
letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise 
applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily 
legible. The height of the letters and figures shall be no 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 



4 INCLINED STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 4 

Section 4 applies to inclined stairway chairlifts 
installed in locations other than in or at a private resi- 
dence for use by the mobility impaired. 

4.1 Runways 

4.1.1 Lifts shall be installed so that means of egress 
is maintained as required by the authority having juris- 
diction. 

4.1.2 The structure on which the equipment is 
installed shall be capable of safely supporting the loads 
imposed. 



4 See section 7 for the requirements for this equipment installed 
in or at a private residence. 



26 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



4.1.3 The installation of electrical equipment and 
wiring shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ 
NFPA 70. 

4.1.4 Electrical equipment shall be certified to the 
requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

4.2 Guide Rails and Tracks 

The supporting tracks or guide rails shall be securely 
anchored to the stairs, floor surface, or side wall. The 
factor of safety used in the design of the guide rails and 
tracks shall be not less than 5 based on the rated load. 

4.3 Driving Means and Sheaves 

The driving means shall be one of the following: 

(a) winding drum 

(b) traction 

(c) roped sprocket 

(d) chain sprocket 

(e) screw 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) direct-plunger hydraulic 
(h) roped-hydraulic 

(i) lever hydraulic 
(j) friction 

4.3.1 General Requirements 

4.3.1.1 The factor of safety used in the design of 
the sprockets and sheaves shall be not less than 5 based 
on the rated load. See Section 8 for special requirements 
for particular drive systems. 

4.3.1.2 Driving-machine chains and sprockets 
shall be of steel and shall conform in design and dimen- 
sions to the requirements of ANSI/ ASME B29.1. 

4.3.1.3 Winding drums, traction sheaves, over- 
head sheaves, and deflecting sheaves used with suspen- 
sion and compensating ropes shall be of metal and be 
provided with finished grooves for ropes or shall be 
permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove material, 
and have a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times the 
diameter of the suspension ropes. Where 8 x 19 steel 
rope or 7 x 19 steel aircraft cable is used, the pitch 
diameter of the drums and sheaves shall be permitted to 
be reduced to 21 times the diameter of the rope or cable. 

Where the grooves are used to transmit power, suffi- 
cient traction shall be provided between the rope and 
groove, and in the event of nonmetallic lining failure, 
between the rope and the remaining sheave groove, to 
safely stop and hold the chair with 125% of the rated 
load. 

4.3.2 Hydraulic Driving Machines. Direct-plunger 
hydraulic driving machines, where used, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 8.1 except para. 8.1.2. 

Roped-hydraulic machines shall also conform to the 
requirements of para. 8.1 except for paras. 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 
8.1.4.3, and 8.1.4.7. 



4.3.3 Screw Machines. Screw machines, where used, 
shall conform to para. 8.2. 

4.3.4 Friction Machines. Friction machines, where 
used, shall conform to para. 8.3. 

4.3.5 Location of Power Unit and Alignment and 
Guarding of Sheaves and Sprockets. The power unit shall 
be permitted to be mounted on the carriage or placed 
at a remote location. If remotely located, all intervening 
sheaves and sprockets shall be so placed that the rope 
or chain travels in the proper alignment. All sheaves 
and sprockets shall be enclosed or guarded. 

4.3.6 In direct- Drive Machines. Indirect-drive ma- 
chines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or drive 
chains, shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
4.3.6.1, 4.3.6.2, and 4.3.6.3, except that the requirements 
of para. 4.3.6.2 shall be permitted to be omitted if a self- 
locking drive meeting the requirements of para. 4.4.2 is 
provided. If multiple belts or chains are provided, they 
shall be preloaded and matched for length in sets. 

4.3.6.1 General Requirements. Belt sets shall be 
selected on the basis of the manufacturer's rated break- 
ing strength and a factor of safety of 10. Chain and 
sprocket sets shall be selected on the basis of recommen- 
dations set forth in the Supplementary Information sec- 
tion of ANSI/ ASME B29.1, using a service factor of 2. 
Offset links in chain are not permitted. 

Sprockets in a chain drive set and also a driven set 
shall be assembled onto a common hub, with teeth cut 
in-line after assembly to assure equal load distribution 
on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive shall be 
constructed in a manner to assure equal load distribu- 
tion on each belt in the set. Load determination for both 
the belt and chain sets shall be based on the maximum 
static loading on the carriage, which is the full load on 
the chair at rest and at a position in the runway that 
creates the greatest load, including either the carriage 
or counterweight resting on its buffer. 

Chain drives and belt drives shall be guarded to pro- 
tect against accidental contact and to prevent foreign 
objects from interfering with drives. 

4.3.6.2 Monitoring and Brake Location. Each belt or 
chain in a set shall be continuously monitored by a 
broken belt or chain device that shall function to auto- 
matically interrupt power to the machine and apply the 
brake if any belt or chain in the set breaks or becomes 
excessively slack. The driving machine brake shall be 
located on the traction sheave or drum assembly side 
of the driving machine so as to be fully effective if the 
entire belt set or chain set should break. 

4.3.6.3 Replacement of Belts or Chains. If one belt 
or chain of a set is worn, stretched, or damaged so as 
to require replacement, the entire set shall be replaced. 
Sprockets and toothed sheaves shall also be replaced if 
worn. 



27 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. r£*k 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^SKy 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



4.4 Driving-Machine Brakes 

4.4.1 A driving-machine brake directly attached to 
the driving means through a continuous shaft, mechani- 
cal coupling, or toothed gearing of the electrically 
released spring applied type shall be provided, except 
on lifts with hydraulic driving machines. 

4.4.2 A machine brake is not required if a self-locking 
drive utilizing a lead screw, worm, or other positive 
gearing that will stop and hold the carriage with the 
rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of down travel after 
the power is removed is provided. 

4.5 Suspension and Support Means 

4.5.1 General Requirements 

4.5.1.1 Suspension and support means shall be 
one of the following: 

(a) steel or iron wire rope 

(b) steel aircraft cable 

(c) roller chain 

(d) direct-plunger hydraulic 

(e) roped-hydraulic 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) screw 

(h) friction machine guides and rollers 

4.5/1.2 Steel tapes or welded link chains shall not 
be used as suspension means. Where wire ropes are 
used, the diameter shall not be less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 
Where aircraft cable is used, the diameter shall not be 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

4.5.2 Factors of Safety. The suspension and support 
means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7 
based on the tension in the rope, cable, chain, or forces 
exerted on the hydraulic cylinder, screw drive, or rack 
and pinion when raising the rated load. When the car- 
riage and counterweight are suspended by steel ropes 
and the driving means between the machine and the 
counterweight is an endless roller-type chain, the factor 
of safety of such chain shall be not less than 8, based 
on the rated load. See section 8 for special requirements 
for particular drive systems. 

4.5.3 Replacement of Chains and Sprockets. If two 

or more chains are used as a suspension or support 
means and a worn chain or sprocket is replaced, all 
chains and sprockets shall be replaced. 

4.6 Chairs and Seats 

Each chair shall have a foot platform and a seat with 
a backrest and a seat belt. Each chair shall be equipped 
with two hand grips or arms. If the chair stops less than 
500 mm (20 in.) beyond the nose of the top landing, 
measured horizontally from the center of the seat, a 
swivel seat shall be provided. The swivel shall have a 
positive locking mechanism, and the seat shall have an 



electric contact that shall prevent the operation of the 
lift when the seat is not in the operating position. 

4.6.1 Chair Truck and Guides. The chair shall be 
securely anchored to a truck that supports it. The truck 
shall be restrained in a track or on a guide-rail assembly. 

4.6.2 Factors of Safety. The factor of safety used in 
the design of the carriage and truck shall be not less 
than 5 based on the rated load. 

4.6.3 Footrest Obstruction Device. If the footrest is 
located so that it is within 150 mm (6 in.) of the step 
nosing or riser, a device shall be provided on the footrest 
to stop the upward motion of the carriage if it encounters 
an object between the footrest and step nosing or riser. 

4.6.4 Footrest Clearance. At no point in its travel shall 
the edge of the footrest facing the upper landing be 
more than 600 mm (24 in.) above the step or landing as 
measure vertically. 

4.7 Capacity, Speed, and Angle of Inclination 

4.7.1 Limitations of Capacity, Load, and Speed. The 

capacity shall not exceed two persons. The rated load 
shall not be less than 115 kg (250 lb) for a one-seat lift 
and not less than 180 kg (400 lb) for a two-seat lift. The 
rated speed shall not exceed 0.2 m/s (40 ft/min). 

4.7.2 Limitation of Angle. No lift shall be installed to 
operate on a greater incline than 45 deg as measured 
on the mean. 

4.7.3 Capacity Plate. A capacity plate stating the 
rated load in pounds shall be furnished by the manufac- 
ture and fastened in a conspicuous place on the device. 
Letters and numbers shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) 
in height. 

4.7.4 Data Plates. A data plate shall be provided by 
the manufacturer and securely fastened in a conspicuous 
place. The plate shall state the rated speed, rated load, 
suspension or support means, date of manufacture, and 
manufacturer's name. Letters and numerals shall be not 
less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

4.8 Safeties and Speed Governors 

All carriages shall be provided with a safety, except 
for carriages of direct-plunger hydraulic lifts. The safety 
shall be actuated by the action of a speed governor 
or by the breakage or slackening of the suspension or 
support means. Where actuation is by a governor, the 
safety shall be set at a maximum speed of 0.4 m/s 
(75 ft/min). Where actuation is by breakage of the sus- 
pension or support means, the safety shall be set without 
delay, and independent of the speed governor, if pro- 
vided. Safety parts shall conform to the requirements 
of para. 4.8.1. Governor ropes, where provided, shall 
conform to the requirements of para. 4.8.2. The applica- 
tion and release of safeties shall conform to the require- 
ments of para. 4.8.3. 



28 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



4.8.1 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

4.8.1.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 3"^, based on the ultimate strength of 
the material, and the materials used shall have an elon- 
gation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

4.8. 1 .2 Springs shall be permitted to be used in the 
operation of carriage or counterweight safeties. Where 
used, and where partially loaded prior to safety opera- 
tion, the loading on the spring shall not produce a fibre 
stress exceeding one-half of the elastic limit of the mate- 
rial. During operation of the safety, the fibre stress shall 
not exceed 85% of the elastic limit of the material. Helical 
springs, where used, shall be in compression. 

4.8.1.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall be 
permitted to be made of cast iron and other metals 
provided such parts have a factor of safety of not less 
than 10. 

4.8.1.4 Rope used as a connection from the safety 
to the governor rope, including rope wound on the 
safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) 
diameter and shall be made of a corrosion-resistant 
metal. 

The factor of safety of the rope shall not be less than 
5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

4.8.1.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

4.8.1.6 Safety-rope leading-sheave brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood platform members. 

4.8.2 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor ropes 
shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, phosphor bronze, 
or stainless steel. They shall be of a regular-lay construc- 
tion, and not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The 
factor of safety of governor ropes shall be not less than 
5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

4.8.3 Means of Application. Safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices 
shall not be used to apply the safeties required by this 
section, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted 
position. 

4.8.3.1 Level of Chair on Safety Application. The 

application of a Type A or Type B safety to stop the 
chair, with its rated load shall not cause the chair to be 
out of level more than 30 mm/m (0.375 in. /ft) in any 
direction. 



4.8.3.2 Release. When carriage safeties are 
applied, no decrease in tension in the governor rope nor 
motion of the carriage in the down direction shall release 
the safeties but such safeties shall be permitted to be 
released by the motion of the chair in the up direction. 

4.9 Terminal Stopping Devices 

4.9.1 Normal terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 4.9.2 shall be permitted to use mechanically oper- 
ated, magnetically operated, optical, or static type 
switches. 

Final terminal stopping devices required by para. 4.9.3 
shall use only mechanically operated switches for 
determining platform position. 

Terminal stopping devices that are located on the car- 
riage or in the runway shall be of the enclosed type and 
securely mounted in such a manner so that horizontal 
movement of the carriage shall not affect the operation 
of the device. 

4.9.2 Upper and lower normal terminal stopping 
devices operated by the carriage shall be provided, and 
shall be set to stop the chair at or near the upper and 
lower terminal landings under rated loading to zero 
loading conditions. 

4.9.3 Upper and lower final terminal stopping 
devices operated by the carriage to remove power from 
the motor and the brake shall be provided, except as 
specified in para. 4.9.6. They shall be set to stop the 
carriage after it travels past the normal terminal stop- 
ping device and before striking an obstruction. 

A slack-rope device equipped with a slack-rope switch 
of the enclosed manually reset type that shall cause the 
electric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake if any hoisting rope becomes slack 
shall be permitted to be used as the lower final terminal 
stopping device. . 

4.9.4 Final terminal stopping devices shall be 
mechanically operated. The switch contacts shall be 
directly opened mechanically. Arrangements that 
depend on a spring, or gravity, or a combination thereof, 
to open the contacts shall not be used. 

4.9.5 The final terminal stopping device shall not 
control the same controller switches as the normal termi- 
nal stopping device unless two or more separate and 
independent switches are provided, two of which shall 
be closed to complete the driving-machine motor-and- 
brake circuit in either direction of travel. Where a two- 
or three-phase alternating-current driving-machine 
motor is used, these switches shall be of the multipole 
type. The control shall be so designed and installed that 
a single ground or short circuit shall be permitted to 
allow either, but not prevent both, the normal and final 
stopping device circuits from stopping the carriage. 



29 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ^® 

\ No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. Tffi*-y 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



4.9.6 Final terminal stopping devices are not 
required for direct-plunger hydraulic driving machines. 
Lower final terminal stopping devices are not required 
where the limitations of the machine or runway limit 
the travel of the carriage (e.g., a carriage at rest on the 
bottom terminal landing). 

4.10 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

4.10.1 Operation. Operation of the chairlift from the 
upper or lower landing and from the chair shall be 
controlled by "UP" and "DOWN" control switches at 
all stations, and shall be by means of the continuous- 
pressure type. Controls shall be 1 200 mm (48 in.) maxi- 
mum and 380 mm (15 in.) minimum above the platform 
floor or facility floor or ground level. Operating devices 
shall be designed so that both the "UP" and "DOWN" 
circuits cannot be operated at the same time. 

4.10.2 Motor Reversal Protection. Where a non- 
instantaneous reversible motor is used, a protective cir- 
cuit or device shall be provided to prevent the motor 
from continuing in the same direction if the reversing 
control is activated. 

4.10.3 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

4.10.3.1 All electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. 

4.10.3.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

4.10.3.3 The failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, relay or contractor to release in the 
intended manner, or the failure of any solid state device 
to operate as intended, or the occurrence of a single 
accidental ground or combination of accidental grounds 
shall not permit the lift to start if this failure renders 
ineffective any electrical protective device. 

4.10.4 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection. Chair- 
lifts having polyphase alternating current power supply 
shall be provided with means to prevent the starting of 
the motor if the phase rotation is in the wrong direction, 
or if there is a failure of any phase. 

This protection shall be considered to be provided if a 
reversal of phase of the incoming polyphase alternating 
current power will not cause the driving machine motor 
to operate in the wrong direction. 

4.10.5 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Brake. Driving-machine brakes shall not be electrically 
released until power has been applied to the driving- 
machine motor. All power feed lines to the brake shall 
be opened, and the brake shall apply automatically 
when any operating device in para. 4.10.1 or 4.10.2 is in 
the "STOP" position and when any electrical protective 
device functions. 



4.10.6 Control and Operating Circuits. The design and 

installation of the control and operating circuits shall 
conform to the following. 

4.10.6.1 Control systems that depend on the com- 
pletion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be 
used for interruption of the power and application of 
the driving-machine brake at terminal landings or stop- 
ping the machine when the safety applies. 

4.10.6.2 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop the lift 
at the terminal landing, they shall be of the restrained 
compression type. 

4.10.7 Slack-Rope and Slack-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving Machines. Wind- 
ing drum driving machines with rope suspension shall 
be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually 
reset type that will remove power from the motor and 
brake if the platform is obstructed in its descent and the 
suspension ropes slacken. Lifts with roller-chain suspen- 
sion means shall be provided with a slack-chain device 
that will remove power from the motor and brake if the 
platform is obstructed in its descent and the suspension 
means slacken. This device is not required to be of the 
manually reset type if the chain sprockets are guarded 
to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged from 
the sprockets. 

4.11 Code Data Plate 

A code data plate shall be provided that indicates the 
A18.1 Standard to be used for inspections and tests. The 
data plate shall be in plain view, securely attached on 
the main line disconnect or on the controller. The data 
plate shall be of such material and construction that the 
letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise 
applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily 
legible. The height of the letters and figures shall be not 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

5 PRIVATE RESIDENCE VERTICAL PLATFORM 
LIFTS 5 

Section 5 applies to vertical platform lifts where 
installed in or at a private residence for use by the mobil- 
ity impaired. 

5.1 Runways 

Runways shall be installed in accordance with para. 
2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, or 5.1.1. Runway construction for lifts 
that penetrate a floor must comply with para. 2.1.1 and 
with the building code. Only lifts installed in confor- 
mance with para. 2.1.1 shall serve more than two 
landings. 



5 See section 2 for the requirements for this equipment installed 
in locations other than in or at a private residence. 



30 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



5.1.1 Guarding 

5.1.1.1 The runway shall be guarded at the upper 
landing by a door at least 900 mm (36 in.) high of solid 
construction and provided with a combination mechani- 
cal lock and electric contact. The door shall be permitted 
to be opened only if the platform floor is within 50 mm 
(2 in.) of that landing. 

(05) 5.1.1.2 A smooth vertical fascia shall be provided 

from the top terminal landing sill and any intermediate 
landing sill to the level of the bottom terminal landing 
sill. Openings necessary for operation shall reject a ball 
12 mm (0.5 in.) diameter. A device to stop the platform 
if an object protrudes beyond the platform edge into 
the running clearance shall be provided if the fascia is 
perforated. The device used shall be effective for the 
full width of the platform opening and for the full travel 
of the platform. The fascia shall be equal to or stronger 
than 1.5 mm (0.0598 in.) sheet steel and guard the full 
width of the platform. The surface shall not be perma- 
nently deformed when a force of 550 N (125 lbf) is 
applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. 

5.1.1.3 A metal guard at least 150 mm (6 in.) in 
height and extending the full width of the platform shall 
be installed on the lower landing side of the platform 
to prevent a wheelchair from rolling off the platform. 
The guard shall be automatically actuated by the move- 
ment of the platform away from the lower landing, and 
it shall remain in the elevated position until the platform 
returns to the lower landing. 

5.1.1.4 The guard shall be operated with positive 
cam action or provided with an electric contact that shall 
stop the platform if the guard is not fully elevated when 
the platform has traveled 150 mm (6 in.) away from the 
lower landing. 

5.1.1.5 The guard shall withstand, without perma- 
nent deformation, a force of 550 N (125 lbf) applied on 
any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) area. This force 
shall not cause the height of the ramp, at any point in its 
length, to be less than 150 mm (6 in.) measured vertically 
from the surface of the platform floor. 

5.1.1.6 The sides of the platform not used for 
entrance or exit shall be guarded to a height of at least 
900 mm (36 in.) by smooth construction with no open- 
ings, other than those necessary for the operation of the 
lift. Those openings necessary for operation shall reject 
a ball 12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter. 

(05) 5.1.1.7 The underside of the platform shall be 

guarded in accordance with the requirements of para. 
5.1.1.7.1, 5.1.1.7.2, or 5.1.1.7.3. 

5.1.1.7.1 The underside of the platform shall be 
equipped with a device that, if the platform is obstructed 
in its downward travel by a force not to exceed 70 N 
(15 lbf) applied anywhere on its underside, will actuate 



a minimum of two sensing devices which shall cause 
electric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake, if provided, and cause the platform 
to stop its downward motion within 50 mm (2 in.). The 
stroke of the device shall not be less than the stopping 
distance of the platform. The lift shall be permitted to 
operate away from the obstruction. Downward motion 
shall be permitted to resume when the obstruction is 
removed. When the installation conforms to the require- 
ments of para. 2.1.1 or 2.1.2, the sensing device on the 
underside of the platform is not required. 

5.1.1.7.2 The underside of the platform shall be 
equipped with a bellows or similar device that shall not 
be permanently deformed when a force of 550 N (125 
lbf) is applied on any 100 mm (4 in.)' by 100 mm (4 in.) 
area. Deflection of the bellows due to a force of 330 N 
(75 lbf) applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm (4 in.) 
area shall not exceed 75 mm (3 in.) or the distance to 
contact an internal moving component other than the 
bellows support mechanism, whichever is less. Deflec- 
tion shall be measured with the platform at the upper- 
most landing. 

(a) The upper attachment point of the bellows shall 
be permitted to be inset from the outer edge of the 
platform provided that the exposed area of the under- 
side of the platform is equipped with a device that con- 
forms to para. 5.1.1.7.1. 

(b) Deflection greater than that allowed by para. 
5.1.1.7.2 shall be permitted, provided that any additional 
deflection actuates a sensing device that causes the elec- 
tric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake, if provided, and causes the platform 
to stop its downward motion within 50 mm (2 in.). 
Downward motion shall be permitted to resume when 
the bellows is returned to its normal condition. 

5.1.1.7.3 A force sensitive safety surface shall 
be provided covering the entire floor area directly under 
the moving platform plus 75 mm (3 in.) beyond any 
exposed platform edge. The device shall prevent down- 
ward motion of the platform when activated by a force 
not to exceed 70 N (15 lbf) applied anywhere on its 
surface. The lift shall be permitted to operate in the 
upward direction. Downward motion shall be permitted 
to resume when the force is removed. 

5.1.1.8 The platform floor-to-sill clearance at the 
upper landing shall not exceed 20 mm (0.75 in.). 

5.1.2 Pipes in Runway Vicinity. Pipes conveying 
steam, gas, or liquids that, if discharged into the runway 
of the platform, would endanger life or health shall not 
be permitted. 

5.1.3 Lower Level Access Ramps. A retractable ramp 
shall be permitted to be mounted on the platform floor, 
and the incline of the ramp shall be not greater than 

(a) 1 in 4 for heights up to 50 mm (2 in.) 



31 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



(b) 1 in 6 for heights up to 65 mm (2.5 in.) 

(c) 1 in 8 for heights up to 75 mm (3 in.) 

(d) 1 in 10 for heights up to 100 mm (4 in.) 

(e) 1 in 12 for heights greater than 100 mm (4 in.) 
The ramp shall extend the full width of the platform 

floor. It shall be permitted to be actuated by the move- 
ment of the platform away from the lower landing and 
it shall remain retracted while the platform is away from 
the lower landing. The ramp shall be permitted to also 
be used as the guard specified in para. 5.1.1.3. 

The ramp shall be operated by a positive mechanical 
action or shall be provided with an electric contact that 
will stop the movement of the platform within 150 mm 
(6 in.) of the lower landing if the ramp has failed to rise 
to its elevated position. 

5.1.4 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

5.1.4.1 The installation of electrical equipment 
and wiring shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ 
NFPA 70. 

5.1.4.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

5.1.5 Structural Support. The structure on which the 
equipment is installed shall be capable of safely support- 
ing the loads imposed. 

5.1.6 Headroom Clearance. Headroom clearance 
throughout the range of travel shall be not less than 
2 000 mm (80 in.) as measured vertically from the plat- 
form floor. 

5.2 Guide Rails 

Guide rails shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.2.3, 5.2.4, and 5.2.5. Where standard tee 
rails are provided they shall also conform to the require- 
ments of paras. 5.2.6 and 5.2.7. Rail joints shall be 
designed to maintain the accuracy of the rail alignment 
and to withstand the stress and deflection limitations 
stipulated in para. 5.2.2. 

5.2.1 Material. Guide rails, guide-rail brackets, rail 
clips, fishplates, and their fastenings shall be of steel or 
other metals conforming to the requirements of para. 
5.2, or, where steel may present an accident hazard, as 
in chemical or explosive plants, guide rails shall be per- 
mitted to be of selected wood or other suitable nonmet- 
alic materials. 

5.2.1.1 Requirements for Steel, Where Used. Rails, 
brackets, fishplates, and rail clips shall be made of open- 
hearth steel or its equivalent having a tensile strength 
of not less than 380 MPa (55,000 psi) and having an 
elongation of not less than 22% in a length of 50 mm 
(2 in.). Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307. Rivets shall 
conform to ASTM A 502. 

5.2.1.2 Requirements for Metals Other Than Steel. 

Metals other than steel shall be permitted to be used 



provided the factor of safety is not less than, and the 
deflections are not more than, the values specified in 
section 5, and provided that cast iron is not used. 

5.2.2 Stresses and Deflections 

5.2.2.1 Guide Rails. For steels conforming to the 
requirements of para. 5.2.1.1, the stresses in a guide rail 
or in the rail and its reinforcement, due to the horizontal 
forces imposed on the rail during loading, unloading, 
or running, calculated without impact, shall not exceed 
100 MPa (15,000 psi), and the deflection shall not exceed 
6 mm (0.25 in.). 

Where steels of greater strength than those specified 
in para. 5.2.1.1 are used, the stresses specified shall be 
permitted to be increased proportionately based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths. 

5.2.2.2 Brackets, Fastenings, and Supports. The 

guide-rail brackets, their fastenings and supports, such 
as building beams and walls, shall be capable of resisting 
the horizontal forces imposed by rated load with a total 
deflection at the point of support not in excess of 3 mm 
(0.125 in.). 

5.2.3 Guide-Rail Surfaces. Guide-rail surfaces used 
for guiding a platform or counterweight shall be suffi- 
ciently smooth and true to operate properly with the 
guiding members. Those surfaces that the platform or 
counterweight safeties engage shall be smooth and true 
within the tolerances required to ensure proper safety 
application without excessive retardation or excessive 
out-of-level platform conditions resulting. 

5.2.4 Overall Length of Guide Rails. The platform and 
counterweight guide rails shall extend at the top and 
bottom to prevent the guiding members from disengag- 
ing from the guide rails if either the platform or counter- 
weight reaches its extreme limit of travel. 

5.2.5 Design and Strength of Brackets and Supports. 

The building construction forming the supports for the 
guide rails, and the guide-rail brackets, shall be designed 
to safely withstand the application of the platform or 
counterweight safety when stopping the platform and 
its rated load or the counterweight, and withstand the 
forces specified in para. 5.2.2.2 within the deflection 
limits specified. 

Where necessary, the building construction shall be 
reinforced to provide adequate supports for the guide 
rails. 

5.2.6 Bracket Fastenings. Guide-rail brackets shall be 
secured to their supporting structure by means of bolts 
or rivets, or by welding. Fastening bolts and bolt holes 
in brackets and their supporting beams shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 5.2.7. Welding, where used, 
shall conform to the requirements of para. 9.1. 

5.2.7 Type of Fastenings. Guide rails shall be secured 
to their brackets by clips, welds, or bolts. Bolts used for 



32 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



S 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



fastening shall be of such strength as to withstand the 
forces specified in paras. 5.2.2.2 and 5.2.5. 

Welding, where used, shall conform to the require- 
ments of para. 9.1. 

5.3 Driving Means and Sheaves 

The driving means shall be one of the following: 

(a) winding drum 

(b) traction 

(c) roped sprocket 

(d) chain sprocket 

(e) screw 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) direct-plunger hydraulic 
(h) roped-hydraulic 

(i) lever hydraulic 

(j) friction 

Driving means utilizing a combination of two or more 
means shall conform to all applicable requirements of 
the respective means unless stated otherwise. 

5.3.1 General Requirements 

5.3.1.1 The factor of safety, based on the static 
load (the rated load plus the weight of the platform, 
ropes, counterweights, etc.), to be used in the design 
of driving machines and sheaves, including fasteners 
transmitting load, shall not be less than 8 for steel, 
bronze, or other metals having an elongation of at least 
14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) or 10 for cast iron or 
other metals having an elongation of less than 14% in 
a length of 50 mm (2 in.). See section 8 for special require- 
ments for particular drive systems. 

5.3.1.2 Set screws or threaded portions located in 
the shear plane of bolts and screws shall not be used to 
transmit load. 

Means shall be provided to ensure that there is no 
relative motion between rigidly joined components 
transmitting load. 

Where flexible couplings are used to transmit load, 
means shall be provided to prevent disengagement of 
the coupling components in the event of failure or exces- 
sive motion in the flexible connection. 

A fillet shall be provided at any point of change in the 
diameter of driving-machine shafts and sheave shafts to 
prevent excessive stress concentrations in the shafts. 

Shafts that support drums, sheaves, gears, couplings, 
and other members, and that transmit torque, shall be 
provided with tight-fitting keys. 

5.3.1.3 Friction gearing, clutch mechanisms, or 
couplings shall not be used to connect a driving machine 
drum or sheave to the main driving mechanism. 

5.3.1.4 Worm gearing having cast iron teeth shall 
not be used on the driving machine. 



5.3.1.5 Driving-machine chains and sprockets 
shall be of steel and shall conform in design and dimen- 
sions to the requirements of ANSI/ ASME B29.1. 

5.3.1.6 Winding drums, traction sheaves, over- 
head sheaves, and deflecting sheaves used with suspen- 
sion and compensating ropes shall be of metal, be 
provided with finished grooves for ropes or shall be 
permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove material, 
and have a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times the 
diameter of the suspension ropes. Where 8 x 19 steel 
rope or 7 x 19 steel aircraft cable is used, however, 
the pitch diameter of the drums and sheaves shall be 
permitted to be reduced to 21 times the diameter of the 
rope or cable. 

Where the grooves are used to transmit power, suffi- 
cient traction shall be provided between the rope and 
groove, and in the event of nonmetallic lining failure, 
between the rope and the remaining sheave groove, to 
safely stop and hold the platform with 125% of the 
rated load. 

5.3.2 Hydraulic Driving Machines. Direct-plunger 
hydraulic driving machines, where used, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 8.1 except para. 8.1.2. 

Roped-hydraulic machines shall also conform to the 
requirements of para. 8.1 except for paras. 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 
8.1.4.3, and 8.1.4.7. 

5.3.3 Screw Machines. Screw machines, where used, 
shall conform to para. 8.2. 

5.3.4 Friction Machines. Friction machines, where 
used, shall conform to para. 8.3. 

5.3.5 Machine Framework and Base. The machine 
framework, base, and fastenings to the buildings, where 
used, shall be of metal construction, have a factor of 
safety of not less than 5 based on the rated load, and 
shall be secured in place with support provided to limit 
their deflections to 6 mm (0.25 in.) maximum in any 
direction under rated load. Cast iron shall not be used. 

5.3.6 Guiding Member Enclosures. The guiding mem- 
bers shall be enclosed with a solid enclosure to prevent 
accidental contact. If openings are necessary in this 
enclosure for operation, they shall reject a ball 20 mm 
(0.75 in.) in diameter. 

5.3.7 Machinery Beams and Supports 

5.3.7.1 All machinery and sheaves shall be so sup- 
ported and secured to prevent any part becoming loose 
or displaced. Beams directly supporting machinery shall 
be of steel or reinforced concrete. 

5.3.7.2 Overhead beams and sheaves shall be 
designed for not less than the total load on overhead 
beams, which shall be assumed to be equal to the weight 
of all apparatus resting on the beams plus twice the 
maximum load suspended from the beams. The load 



33 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



resting on the beams shall include the complete weights 
of the driving machine, sheaves, controller, etc. The load 
suspended from the beams shall include the sum of the 
tensions in all ropes suspended from the beams. 

5.3.7.3 The driving machine or sheaves, except 
idlers or deflecting sheaves with their guards and 
frames, shall not be fastened to the underside of the 
supporting beams at the top of the runway. 

5.3.7.4 Cast iron in tension shall not be used for 
supporting members for sheaves where they are hung 
beneath beams. 

5.3.8 Guarding of Driving Machines and Suspension 
Means. The driving machine and suspension means 
shall be enclosed with a solid enclosure. Any opening 
required for operation shall reject a ball 20 mm (0.75 in.) 
in diameter. Access shall be provided by a removable 
panel for inspecting and servicing. The panel shall be 
screwed, locked, or bolted in place. 

5.3.9 Indirect-Drive Machines. Indirect-drive 
machines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or 
drive chains, shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
5.3.9.1, 5.3.9.2, and 5.3.9.3, except that the requirements 
of para. 5.3.9.2 shall be permitted to be omitted if a self- 
locking drive meeting the requirements of para. 5.4.3 is 
provided. If multiple belts or chains are provided, they 
shall be preloaded and matched for length in sets. 

5.3.9.1 General Requirements. Belt sets shall be 
selected on the basis of the manufacturer's rated break- 
ing strength and a factor of safety of 10. Chain and 
sprocket sets shall be selected on the basis of recommen- 
dations set forth in the Supplementary Information sec- 
tion of ANSI/ ASME B29.1, using a service factor of 2. 
Offset links in chain are not permitted. 

Sprockets in a chain drive set and also a driven set 
shall be assembled onto a common hub, with teeth cut 
in-line after assembly to ensure equal load distribution 
on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive shall be 
constructed in a manner to ensure equal load distribu- 
tion on each belt in the set. Load determination for both 
the belt and chain sets shall be based on the maximum 
static loading on the platform, which is the full load in 
the platform at rest and at a position in the runway that 
creates the greatest load, including either the platform 
or counterweight resting on its buffer. 

Chain drives and belt drives shall be guarded to pro- 
tect against accidental contact and to prevent foreign 
objects from interfering with drives. 

5.3.9.2 Monitoring and Brake Location. Each belt or 
chain in a set shall be continuously monitored by a 
broken belt or chain device that shall function to auto- 
matically interrupt power to the machine and apply the 
brake if any belt or chain in the set breaks or becomes 
excessively slack. The driving machine brake shall be 
located on the traction sheave or drum assembly side 



of the driving machine so as to be fully effective if the 
entire belt set or chain set should break. 

5.3.9.3 Replacement of Belts or Chains. If one belt 
or chain of a set is worn, stretched, or damaged so as 
to require replacement, the entire set shall be replaced. 
Sprockets and toothed sheaves shall also be replaced if 
worn. 

5.4 Driving-Machine Brakes 

5.4.1 Driving machines, except hydraulic, shall be 
equipped with friction brakes directly attached to the 
driving means through a continuous shaft, mechanical 
coupling, or toothed gearing applied by springs, or by 
gravity, and released electrically. 

5.4.2 A single ground or short circuit, a counter- 
voltage or a motor-field discharge shall not prevent the 
brake magnet from allowing the brake to set when the 
operating device is placed in the stop position. 

5.4.3 A machine brake is not required if a self-locking 
drive utilizing a lead screw, worm, or other positive 
gearing that will stop and hold the platform with the 
rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of down travel after 
the power is removed is provided. 

5.5 Suspension and Support Means 

5.5.1 General Requirements 

5.5.1.1 Suspension and support means shall be (05) 
one or more of the following: 

(a) steel or iron wire rope 

(b) steel aircraft cable 

(c) chain 

(d) hydraulic 

(e) rack and pinion 

(f) screw 

(g) friction machine guides and rollers 
(h) lever 

Suspension and support means utilizing a combina- 
tion of two or more means shall conform to all applicable 
requirements of the respective means unless stated 
otherwise. 

5.5.1.2 Steel tapes or welded link chains shall not 
be used as suspension means. 

5.5.1.3 Where ropes or chains are used, no fewer 
than two shall be provided. 

5.5.1.4 For rated loads up to 230 kg (500 lb), ropes 
shall have a minimum diameter of 6 mm (0.25 in.) and 
chains shall have a minimum pitch of 12 mm (0.5 in.). 
For higher rated loads, ropes shall have a minimum 
diameter of 10 mm (0.375 in.) and chains shall have a 
minimum pitch of 15 mm (0.625 in.). 

5.5.2 Factors of Safety. The suspension and support (05) 
means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7 



34 



C 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



based on the tension or forces exerted on the suspension 
- means when raising the rated load. When the platform 
and counterweight are suspended by steel ropes and 
the driving means between the machine and the counter- 
weight is an endless roller- type chain, the factor of safety 
of such chain shall be not less than 8, based on the rated 
load. See section 8 for special requirements for particular 
drive means. 

5.5.3 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on Sheaves 
and Sprockets. The arc of contact of a wire rope on a 
traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce adequate 
traction under all load conditions. The arc of contact of 
a chain on a driving sprocket shall be not less than 
140 deg. 

5.5.4 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums. All wire 
ropes of winding drum machines shall have not less 
than one full turn of the rope on the drum when the 
platform or counterweight has reached its limit of possi- 
ble overtravel. 

5.5.5 Securing Suspension Ropes to Winding Drums. 

The drum ends of wire ropes shall be secured on the 
inside of the drum of winding drum machines by 
clamps, tapered babbitted sockets, or by other means 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

5.5.6 Lengthening, Splicing, Repairing, or Replacing 
Suspension Means. Suspension wire rope shall not be 
lengthened or repaired by splicing. Broken or worn sus- 
pension chains shall not be repaired. If one rope or chain 
of a set is worn or damaged and requires replacement, 
the entire set of ropes or chains shall be replaced. If a 
chain or sprocket is replaced due to wear, all chains and 
sprockets shall be replaced. 

5.5.7 Fastening of Rope Suspension Means to Plat- 
form. The platform ends of wire ropes shall be fastened 
in a return loop by properly made individual tapered 
babbitted sockets or properly attached fittings as recom- 
mended by wire rope manufacturers. Clips of the U- 
bolt type shall not be used. Tapered babbitted rope sock- 
ets and the method of babbitting shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 9.8. 

5.5.8 Guarding. All suspension means shall be 
guarded against accidental contact. Suspension means 
that operate within a guide or track and travel at the 
same speed and in the same direction as the platform 
shall be considered suitably guarded. 

5.6 Platforms 

5.6.1 Frame and Floor. The frame shall be of metal 
construction and have a factor of safety of not less than 
5 based on the rated load. The floor shall be of metal 
or wood construction with a nonskid surface. 

5.6.2 Securing of Enclosures. The enclosure shall be 
securely fastened to the floor and so supported that it 



cannot loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, 
on the application of the platform safety, or on buffer 
engagement. 

The platform enclosure shall be so constructed that 
removable portions cannot be dismantled from within 
the platform. Enclosure linings, decorative panels, light 
fixtures, and other apparatus or equipment attached to 
the enclosure shall be securely fastened and so sup- 
ported that they will not loosen or become displaced in 
ordinary service, on platform safety application, or on 
buffer engagement. 

Panels attached to the enclosure for decorative or 
other purposes shall not be unfastened from inside the 
platform by the use of common tools or shall be permit- 
ted to be removed from inside the platform when perfo- 
rations, exceeding that which would reject a ball 12 mm 
(0.5 in.) in diameter, in the enclosure used for panel 
hanging or support have permanent means to prevent 
straight through passage beyond the running clearance. 

5.6.3 Strength and Deflection of Enclosure Walls. The 

enclosure walls shall be designed and installed to with- 
stand a force of 330 N (75 lbf ) applied horizontally at any 
point on the walls of the enclosure without permanent 
deformation nor cause the deflection to exceed 25 mm 
(1 in.). 

5.6.4 Use of Cast Iron. Cast iron shall not be used in 
the construction of any load bearing member of the 
platform frame or floor other than for guide shoes and 
guide shoe brackets. 

5.6.5 Floor Size. The inside net floor area shall not 
exceed 1.7 m 2 (18 ft 2 ). 

5.6.6 Illumination. The minimum illumination at the 
landing edge of the floor with the landing door open 
shall be not less than 50 lx (5 fc). 

5.7 Capacity, Speed, and Travel 

5.7.1 Limitation of Load, Speed, and Travel. The rated 
load shall be not less than 200 kg (450 lb) nor more than 
340 kg (750 lb). Platforms with floor area greater than 
1.4 m 2 (15 ft 2 ) shall have a rated load of not less than 
340 kg (750 lb). The lift shall be capable of sustaining 
and lowering a load as specified in Fig. 9.7. 

The rated speed shall not exceed 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). 
The travel shall not exceed 4 250 mm (168 in.). 

5.7.2 Capacity Plates. A capacity plate stating the 
rated load shall be provided by the manufacturer and 
fastened in a conspicuous place. The letters and numer- 
als used shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

5.7.3 Data Plates. A data plate shall be provided by 
the manufacturer and securely fastened to the machine. 
The plate shall state the rated speed, rated load, weight 
of platform, suspension and support means, date of 
manufacture, and manufacturer's name. Letters and 
numerals shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 



(05) 



35 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



(05) 5.8 Safeties and Speed Governors 

All platforms shall be provided with a safety, except 
as permitted by para. 5.8.8. The safety shall be actuated 
by the action of a speed governor or by the breakage or 
slackening of the suspension or support means. Where 
actuation is by a governor, the safety shall be set at a 
maximum speed of 0.4 m/s (75 ft/min). Where actuation 
is by breakage or slackening of the suspension or support 
means, the safety shall be set without delay and indepen- 
dent of the speed governor, if provided. When screw 
drive machines are used, safeties and speed governors 
conforming to para. 5.8.1 shall be permitted. Safety parts 
shall conform to the requirements of para. 5.8.2. Gover- 
nor ropes, where provided, shall conform to the require- 
ments of para. 5.8.3. Where hoisting ropes are used, the 
application of safeties shall conform to the requirements 
of para. 5.8.4. The application and release of safeties 
shall conform to the requirements of paras. 5.8.5, 5.8.6, 
and 5.8.7. 

5.8.1 Screw Drive Alternate Safety. The platform 
safety and governor shall be permitted to be omitted if 
another safety device is provided to either limit the 
down speed of the platform with rated load to not over 
0.9 m/s (175 ft/min) in the event of failure of the driving 
means or to limit the fall of the platform in the event 
of failure of the driving nut to a distance not exceeding 
12 mm (0.5 in.), by utilizing a safety nut or other equiva- 
lent means. 

The capability of the alternate safety devices to func- 
tion as required shall be verified by engineering tests 
as described in para. 9.6. 

5.8.2 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

5.8.2.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 3^, based on the ultimate strength of 
the material, and the materials used shall have an elon- 
gation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

5.8.2.2 Springs shall be permitted to be used in the 
operation of platform or counterweight safeties. Where 
used, and where partially loaded prior to safety opera- 
tion, the loading on the spring shall not produce a fiber 
stress exceeding one-half the elastic limit of the material. 
During operation of the safety, the fiber stress shall not 
exceed 85% of the elastic limit of the material. Helical 
springs, where used, shall be in compression. 

5.8.2.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall be 
permitted to be made of cast iron and other metals 
provided such parts have a factor of safety of not less 
than 10. 



5.8.2.4 Rope used as a connection from the safety 
to the governor rope, including rope wound on the 
safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) 
in diameter and shall be made of corrosion-resistant 
metal. The factor of safety of the rope shall be not less 
than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

5.8.2.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

5.8.2.6 Safety-rope leading-sheave brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood platform members. 

5.8.3 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor ropes 
shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, phosphor bronze, 
or stainless steel. They shall be of a regular-lay construc- 
tion, and not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The 
factor of safety of governor ropes shall not be less than 
5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

5.8.4 Type A (Instantaneous) Safeties. When 
overspeed occurs, with the hoisting rope intact, such 
safeties shall be actuated by the governor. On the parting 
of the hoisting ropes (free fall), Type A governor oper- 
ated safeties shall apply without appreciable delay, and 
their application shall be independent of the speed 
action of the governor and of the location of the break 
in the hoisting ropes (inertia application), and shall be 
permitted to be accomplished by the use of a governor 
and governor rigging having a sufficiently high value 
of inertia to apply the safety on free fall independently 
of the speed action of the governor. 

5.8.5 Means of Application. Safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices 
shall not be used to apply the safeties required by section 
5, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted position. 

5.8.6 Level of Platform on Safety Application. The 

application of a Type A or Type B safety to stop the 
platform, with its rated load centered on each quarter 
of the platform floor symmetrically with relation to the 
center line of the platform floor, shall not cause the 
platform to be out of level more than 30 mm/m (0.375 
in. /ft) in any direction. 

5.8.7 Release. When platform safeties are applied, 
no decrease in tension in the governor rope nor motion 
of the platform in the down direction shall release the 
safeties, but such safeties shall be permitted to be 
released by the motion of the platform in the up 
direction. 

5.8.8 Platform Safety Exceptions. Platform safeties (05) 
are not required for lifts with the following driving 
means: 

(a) direct-plunger hydraulic 



36 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



(b) other drives that do not utilize a flexible suspen- 
sion means, provided that the failure of a single drive 
component cannot result in the platform overspeeding 
or the floor going out of level more than 30 mm/m 
(0.375 in. /ft) in any direction, and said failure would 
cause the platform to stop by application of a safety 
switch or equivalent means 

5.9 Terminal Stopping Devices 

5.9.1 Normal terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 5.9.2 shall be permitted to use mechanically oper- 
ated, magnetically operated, optical, or static type 
switches. 

Final terminal stopping devices required by para. 5.9.3 
shall use only mechanically operated switches for 
determining platform position. Terminal stopping 
devices that are located on the platform or in the runway 
shall be of the enclosed type and securely mounted in 
such a manner so that horizontal movement of the plat- 
form shall not affect the operation of the device. 

5.9.2 Normal stopping devices operated by the plat- 
form shall be provided, and shall be set to stop the 
platform floor within a tolerance of 12 mm (0.5 in.) 
of the landings under rated loading to zero loading 
conditions. The normal stopping devices shall be permit- 
ted to also serve as the upper and lower normal terminal 
stopping devices. 

5.9.3 Upper and lower final terminal stopping 
devices operated by the platform shall be provided to 
remove power from the motor and the brake, if provided, 
except as specified in para. 5.9.6. They shall be set to 
stop the platform after it travels past the normal terminal 
stopping device and before striking an obstruction. A 
slack-rope device equipped with a slack-rope switch of 
the enclosed manually reset type, which shall cause the 
electric power to be removed from the driving machine 
motor and brake if any hoisting rope becomes slack 
shall be permitted to be used as the lower final terminal 
stopping device. 

5.9.4 Final terminal stopping devices shall be 
mechanically operated. The switch contacts shall be 
directly opened mechanically. Arrangements that 
depend on a spring or gravity, or a combination thereof, 
to open the contacts shall not be used. 

5.9.5 The final terminal stopping device shall not 
control the same controller switches as the normal termi- 
nal stopping devices unless two or more separate and 
independent switches are provided, two of which shall 
be closed to complete the driving-machine motor-and- 
brake circuit in either direction of travel. Where a two- 
or three-phase alternating-current driving-machine 
motor is used, these switches shall be of the multipole 
type. 

The control shall be so designed and installed that a 
single ground or short circuit shall be permitted to allow 



either, but not prevent both, the normal and final stop- 
ping device circuits from stopping the platform. 

5.9.6 Final terminal stopping devices are not 
required for direct-plunger hydraulic driving machines. 
Lower final terminal stopping devices are not required 
where the limitations of the machine or runway limit 
the travel of the platform (e.g., a platform at rest on the 
bottom terminal landing). 

5.10 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

5.10.1 Operation. Operation of the chairlift from the 
upper or lower landing and from the chair shall be 
controlled by "UP" and "DOWN" control switches at 
all stations, and shall be by means of the continuous- 
pressure type. Controls shall be 1 200 mm (48 in.) maxi- 
mum and 380 mm (15 in.) minimum above the platform 
floor or facility floor or ground level. Operating devices 
shall be designed so that both the "UP" and "DOWN" 
circuits cannot be operated at the same time. 

5.10.2 Attendant Operation. Attendant operation 
shall be permitted to be provided. Where provided, it 
shall conform to the requirements of paras 5.10.2.1 and 

5.10.2.2. 

5.10.2.1 The attendant shall operate the lift by 
means of a continuous-pressure control located at the 
lower landing. It shall be so located that the attendant 
has full view of the floor area under the lift. A manually 
reset emergency stop switch shall also be provided at 
that location. 

5.10.2.2 No controls, other than an emergency 
stop switch, shall be provided on the platform. 

5.10.3 Control and Operating Circuit Requirements. 

The design and installation of the control and operating 
circuits shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
5.10.3.1 through 5.10.3.3. 

5.10.3.1 Control systems that depend on the com- 
pletion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be 
used for interruption of the power and application of 
the machine brake at terminal landings or for stopping 
the machine when the safety applies. 

5.10.3.2 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop the lift 
at the terminal landings, they shall be of the restrained 
compression type. 

5.10.3.3 The failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, relay, or contactor to release in the 
intended manner, or the failure of any solid state device 
to operate as intended, or the occurrence of a single 
accidental ground or combination of accidental grounds 
shall not permit the lift to start if this failure renders 
ineffective any electrical protective device. 



37 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



5.10.4 Motor Reversal Protection. Where a non- 
instantaneous reversible motor is used, a protective cir- 
cuit or device shall be provided to prevent the motor 
from continuing in the same direction if the reversing 
control is activated. 

5.10.5 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection. Lifts 
having polyphase alternating current power supply 
shall be provided with means to prevent the starting of 
the lift motor if the phase rotation is in the wrong direc- 
tion, or if there is a failure of any phase. This protection 
shall be considered to be provided if a reversal of phase 
of the incoming polyphase alternating current power 
will not cause the driving machine motor to operate in 
the wrong direction. 

5.10.6 Emergency Stop Switch. An emergency stop 
switch shall be provided in the platform, and located 
in or adjacent to each platform operating panel. When 
opened, this switch shall cause the electric power to be 
removed from the driving-machine motor and brake. 

Emergency stop switches shall be of the manually 
opened and closed type and have red operating handles 
or buttons. They shall be conspicuously and perma- 
nently marked "STOP" and shall indicate the "STOP" 
and "RUN" positions. Switches shall be positively 
opened mechanically and their opening shall not be 
solely dependent on springs. 

5.10.7 Slack-Rope and Slack-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving Machines. Wind- 
ing drum driving machines with rope suspension shall 
be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually 
reset type that will remove power from the motor and 
brake if the platform is obstructed in its descent and the 
suspension ropes slacken. Lifts with roller chain suspen- 
sion means shall be provided with a slack-chain device 
that will remove power from the motor and brake if the 
platform is obstructed in its descent and the suspension 
means slacken. This device is not required to be of the 
manually reset type if the chain sprockets are guarded 
to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged from 
the sprockets. 

5.10.8 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Brake. Driving-machine brakes shall not be electroni- 
cally released until power has been applied to the driv- 
ing-machine motor. All power feed lines to the brake 
shall be opened, and the brake shall apply automatically 
when any operating device in para. 5.10.1 or 5.10.2 is in 
the "STOP" position and when any electrical protective 
device functions. 

5.10.9 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

5.10.9.1 All electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. 

5.10.9.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 



5.10.10 Manual Operations. Means shall be provided 
to permit authorized personnel from a position outside 
the platform to raise or lower the platform manually in 
the event of power failure, unless standby (emergency) 
power is provided. 

5.11 Code Data Plate 

A code data plate shall be provided that indicates the 
A18.1 Standard to be used for inspections and tests. The 
data plate shall be in plain view, securely attached on 
the main line disconnect or on the controller. The data 
plate shall be of such material and construction that the 
letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise 
applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily 
legible. The height of the letters and figures shall be not 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

6 PRIVATE RESIDENCE INCLINED PLATFORM 
LIFTS 6 

Section 6 applies to inclined platform lifts where 
installed in or at a private residence for use by the mobil- 
ity impaired. 

6.1 Runways 

6.1.1 Free Passage Width. A free passage width of 
not less than 500 mm (20 in.) shall be provided. If the 
platform can be folded when not in use, the distance 
will be measured from the folded position. 

6.1.2 Clearances. Clearances between the platform 
and adjacent surfaces shall not be less than 20 mm 
(0.75 in,). At no point in its travel shall the edge of the 
platform facing the upper landing be more than 600 mm 
(24 in.) above a step or landing as measured vertically. 

6.1.3 Pits and Ramps. A pit, floor-mounted ramp, or 
retractable platform-mounted ramp shall be provided. 
Floor-mounted ramps shall comply to the requirements 
of para. 3.1.4.1. Retractable ramps shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 6.6.6. Where a pit is provided, it 
shall be protected as required by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

6.1.4 Pipes in Runway Vicinity. Pipes conveying 
steam, gas, or liquid that, if discharged into runway, 
would endanger life or health shall not be permitted. 

6.1.5 Structural Support. The structure on which the 
equipment is installed shall be capable of safely support- 
ing the loads imposed. 

6.1.6 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

6.1.6.1 The installation of electrical equipment 
and wiring shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ 
NFPA 70. 

6 See section 3 for the requirements for this equipment installed 
in locations other than in or at a private residence. 



38 



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SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASMEA18.1-2005 



6.1.6.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

6.2 Guide Rails and Tracks 

6.2.1 Material. Platform guide rails shall be of metal 
construction. Steel construction shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 6.2.1.1. Metals other than steel 
shall conform to the requirements of para. 6.2.1.2. Guide- 
rail surfaces shall conform to the requirements of para. 
6.2.1.3. 

6.2.1.1 Requirements for Steel, Where Used. Rails, 
brackets, fishplates, and rail clips shall be made of open- 
hearth steel or its equivalent having a tensile strength 
of not less than 380 MPa (55,000 psi) and having an 
elongation of not less than 22% in a length of 50 mm 
(2 in.). Bolts shall conform to ASTM A 307. Rivets shall 
conform to ASTM A 502. 

6.2.1.2 Requirements for Metals Other Than Steel. 

Metals other than steel shall be permitted to be used 
provided the factor of safety is not less than, and the 
deflections are not more than, the values specified in 
section 6, and provided that cast iron is not used. 

6.2.1.3 Guide-Rail Surfaces. Guide-rail surfaces 
used for guiding a platform or counterweight shall be 
sufficiently smooth and true to operate properly with 
the guiding members. Those surfaces that the platform 
or counterweight safeties engage shall be smooth and 
true within the tolerances required to ensure proper 
safety application without excessive retardation or 
excessive out-of-level platform conditions resulting. 

6.2.2 Location. The top and bottom ends of each run 
of guide rails shall be so located in relation to the extreme 
positions of travel of the platform that the platform guid- 
ing members cannot travel beyond the ends of the 
guide rails. 

6.2.3 Stresses and Deflections. The stresses and 
deflections in the guide rails and their brackets shall 
conform to the requirements of paras. 6.2.3.1 and 6.2.3.2. 

6.2.3.1 Guide Rails. For steels conforming to the 
requirements of para. 6.2.1, the stresses in a guide rail 
or in the rail and its reinforcement, due to the horizontal 
forces imposed on the rail during loading, unloading, 
or running, calculated without impact, shall not exceed 
100 MPa (15,000 psi) and the deflection shall not exceed 
6 mm (0.25 in.). 

Where steels of greater strength than those specified 
in para. 6.2.1.1 are used, the stresses specified shall be 
permitted to be increased proportionately based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths. 

6.2.3.2 Brackets, Fastening, and Supports. The 

guide-rail brackets, their fastenings and supports, such 
as building beams and walls, shall be capable of resisting 
the horizontal forces imposed with a total deflection at 
the point of support not in excess of 3 mm (0.125 in.). 



6.2.4 Factor of Safety. The factor of safety used in 
the design of guide rails shall be not less than 5, based 
on rated load. 

6.2.5 Anchoring. The supporting tracks or guide rails 
shall be securely anchored to the stairs, floor surface, or 
side walls. 

6.3 Driving Means and Sheaves 

The driving means shall be one of the following: 

(a) winding drum 

(b) traction 

(c) roped sprocket 

(d) chain sprocket 

(e) screw 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) direct-plunger hydraulic 
(h) roped-hydraulic 

(i) lever hydraulic 
(j) friction 

6.3.1 General Requirements 

6.3.1.1 The factors of safety, based on the static 
load (the rated load plus the weight of the platform, 
ropes, counterweights, etc.) to be used in the design of 
driving machines and sheaves shall not be less than 8 
for steel, bronze, or other metals having an elongation 
of at least 14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) or 10 for cast 
iron or other metals having an elongation of less than 
14% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). See section 8 for special 
requirements for particular drive systems. 

6.3.1.2 Set-screws or threaded portions located in 
the shear plane of bolts and screws shall not be used to 
transmit load. 

Means shall be provided to ensure that there is no 
relative motion between rigidly joined components 
transmitting load. 

Where flexible couplings are used to transmit load, 
means shall be provided to prevent disengagement of 
the coupling components in the event of failure or exces- 
sive motion in the flexible connection. 

A fillet shall be provided at any point of change in the 
diameter of driving-machine shafts and sheave shafts to 
prevent excessive stress concentrations in the shafts. 

Shafts that support drums, sheaves, gears, couplings, 
and other members, and that transmit torque, shall be 
provided with tight-fitting keys. 

6.3.1.3 Friction gearing, clutch mechanisms, or 
couplings shall not be used to connect a driving machine 
drum or sheave to the main driving mechanism. 

6.3.1.4 Gearing having cast iron teeth shall not be 
used on the driving machine. 



39 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. f£L sj 

\ No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^^ 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



6.3.1.5 Driving-machine chains and sprockets 
shall be of steel and shall conform in design and dimen- 
sions to the requirements of ANSI /ASME B29.1. 

6.3.1.6 Winding drums, traction sheaves, over- 
head sheaves, and deflecting sheaves shall be of cast 
iron or steel, of a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times 
the diameter of the suspension ropes. Where 8 x 19 
steel rope or 7 x 19 steel aircraft cable is used, the pitch 
diameter of drums and sheaves shall be permitted to be 
reduced to 21 times the diameter of the rope or cable. 
The rope grooves shall be machined. 

6.3.2 Hydraulic Driving Machines. Direct-plunger 
hydraulic driving machines, where used, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 8.1 except para. 8.1.2. 

Roped-hydraulic machines shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 8.1, except for paras. 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 
8.1.4.3, and 8.1.4.7. 

6.3.3 Screw Machines. Screw machines, where used, 
shall conform to para. 8.2. 

6.3.4 Friction Machines. Friction machines, where 
used, shall conform to para. 8.3. 

6.3.5 Location of Power Unit and Alignment and 
Guarding of Sheaves and Sprockets. The power unit shall 
be permitted to be mounted on the platform or placed 
at a remote location. If remotely located, all intervening 
sheaves and sprockets shall be so placed that the rope 
or chain travels in the proper alignment. All sheaves 
and sprockets shall be enclosed or guarded. 

6.3.6 Indirect-Drive Machines. Indirect-drive ma- 
chines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or drive 
chains, shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
6.3.6.1, 6.3.6.2, and 6.3.6.3, except that the requirements 
of para. 6.3.6.2 shall be permitted to be omitted if a self- 
locking drive meeting the requirements of para. 6.4.2 is 
provided. If multiple belts or chains are provided, they 
shall be preloaded and matched for length in sets. 

6.3.6.1 General Requirements. Belt set shall be 
selected on the basis of the manufacturer's rated break- 
ing strength and a factor of safety of 10. Chain and 
sprocket sets shall be selected on the basis of recommen- 
dations set forth in the Supplementary Information sec- 
tion of ANSI/ ASME B29.1, using a service factor of 2. 
Offset links in chain are not permitted. 

Sprockets in a chain drive set and also a driven set 
shall be assembled onto a common hub, with teeth cut 
in-line after assembly to assure equal load distribution 
on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive shall be 
constructed in a manner to assure equal load distribu- 
tion on each belt in the set. Load determination for both 
the belt and chain sets shall be based on the maximum 
static loading on the platform, which is the full load in 
the platform at rest and at a position in the runway that 



creates the greatest load, including either the platform 
or counterweight resting on its buffer. 

Chain drives and belt drives shall be guarded to pro- 
tect against accidental contact and to prevent foreign 
objects from interfering with drives. 

6.3.6.2 Monitoring and Brake Location. Each belt or 
chain in a set shall be continuously monitored by a 
broken belt or chain device that shall function to auto- 
matically interrupt power to the machine and apply the 
brake if any belt or chain in the set breaks or becomes 
excessively slack. The driving machine brake shall be 
located on the traction sheave or drum assembly side 
of the driving machine so as to be fully effective if the 
entire belt set or chain set should break. 

6.4 Driving-Machine Brakes 

6.4.1 Driving machines, except hydraulic, shall be 
equipped with electrically released spring applied 
brakes directly attached to the driving means through 
a continuous shaft, mechanical coupling, or toothed 
gearing. A single ground or short circuit, a counter- 
voltage or a motor-field discharge shall not prevent the 
brake magnet from allowing the brake to set when the 
operating device is placed in the stop position. 

6.4.2 A machine brake is not required if a self-locking 
drive utilizing a lead screw, worm, or other positive 
gearing that will stop and hold the platform with the 
rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of down travel after 
the power is removed is provided. 

6.5 Suspension and Support Means 

6.5.1 General Requirements 

6.5.1.1 Suspension and support means shall be 
one of the following: 

(a) steel or iron wire rope 

(b) steel aircraft cable 

(c) roller chain 

(d) direct-plunger hydraulic 

(e) roped-hydraulic 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) screw 

(h) friction machine guides and rollers 

6.5.1.2 Steel tapes or welded link chains shall not 
be used as suspension means. 

6.5.1.3 Where wire ropes are used, the diameter 
shall not be less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 

6.5.2 Factors of Safety. The suspension and support 
means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7 
based on the tension in the rope, cable, chain, or forces 
exerted on the hydraulic cylinder, screw drive, or rack 
and pinion when raising the rated load. When the plat- 
form and counterweight are suspended by steel ropes 
and the driving means between the machine and the 



40 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
v No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



counterweight is an endless roller-type chain, the factor 
of safety of such chain shall be not less than 8, based 
on the rated load. See section 8 for special requirements 
of particular drive systems. 

6.5.3 Arc of Contact of Suspension Means on Sheaves 
and Sprockets. The arc of contact of a wire rope on a 
traction sheave shall be sufficient to produce adequate 
traction under all load conditions. The arc of contact of 
a chain on a driving sprocket shall be not less than 
140 deg. 

6.5.4 Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums. All wire 
ropes of winding drum machines shall have not less 
than one full turn of the rope on the drum when the 
platform or counterweight has reached its limit of possi- 
ble overtravel. 

6.5.5 Securing Suspension Ropes to Winding Drums. 

The drum ends of wire ropes shall be secured by clamps 
on the inside of the drum of winding drum machines, 
tapered babbitted sockets, or by other means approved 
by the authority having jurisdiction. 

6.5.6 Lengthening, Splicing, Repairing, or Replacing 
Suspension Means. Suspension wire ropes shall not be 
lengthened or repaired by splicing. Broken or worn sus- 
pension chains shall not be repaired. If one rope or chain 
of a set is worn or damaged and requires replacement, 
the entire set of ropes or chains shall be replaced. If a 
chain or sprocket is replaced due to wear, all chains and 
sprockets shall be replaced. 

6.5.7 Fastening of Rope Suspension Means to Plat- 
form. The platform ends of wire ropes shall be fastened 
in a return loop by properly made individual tapered 
babbitted sockets or properly attached fittings as recom- 
mended by wire rope manufacturers. Clips of the U- 
bolt type shall not be used. Tapered babbitted rope sock- 
ets and the method of babbitting shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 9.8. 

6.5.8 Guarding. All moving suspension means shall 
be guarded against accidental contact. Suspension 
means that operate within a guide or track and travel 
at the same speed and in the same direction as the 
platform shall be considered suitably guarded. 

6.6 Platforms 

6.6.1 Frame and Floor. The frame shall be of metal 
construction and have a factor of safety of not less than 
5 based on the rated load. The floor shall be of metal 
or wood construction with a nonskid surfatser 

6.6.1.1 Securing of Enclosures. The enclosure shall 
be securely fastened to the platform and so supported 
that it cannot loosen or become displaced in ordinary 
service, on the application of the platform safety, or on 
buffer engagement. 



The enclosure shall be so constructed that removable 
portions cannot be dismantled from within the platform. 

Enclosure linings, decorative panels, light fixtures, 
and other apparatus or equipment attached within the 
enclosure shall be securely fastened and so supported 
that they will not loosen or become displaced in ordinary 
service, on platform safety application, or on buffer 
engagement. 

Panels attached to the enclosure for decorative or 
other purposes shall not be unfastened from inside the 
platform by the use of common tools or shall be permit- 
ted to be removed from inside the platform when perfo- 
rations, exceeding that which would reject a ball 12 mm 
(0.5 in.) in diameter, in the enclosure used for panel 
hanging or support have permanent means to prevent 
straight through passage beyond the running clearance. 

6.6.1.2 Strength and Deflection of Enclosure Walls. 

The enclosure walls shall be designed and installed to 
withstand a force of 330 N (75 lbf ) applied horizontally 
at any point on the walls of the enclosure without perma- 
nent deformation nor cause the deflection to exceed 
25 mm (1 in.). 

6.6.2 Floor Area. The inside net floor area shall not 
exceed 1.1 m 2 (12 ft 2 ). 

6.6.3 Material. Metals having an elongation of less 
than 20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) shall not be used 
in the construction of any member of the frame or floor. 

6.6.4 Glass on Platforms. Glass shall be permitted to 
be used on platforms subject to the requirements of 
paras. 6.6.4.1 through 6.6.4.4. 

6.6.4.1 It shall be installed and guarded so as to 
provide adequate protection for passengers in case the 
glass panels break or are dislodged. 

6.6.4.2 It shall be so mounted in the structure so 
that the structure, including the glass in place, shall 
withstand the required lift tests without damage. 

6.6.4.3 Glass greater than 0.1 m 2 (1 ft 2 ) in area and 
abutting panels whose total area is greater than 0.1 m 2 
(1 ft 2 ) shall be laminated glass as defined by ANSI Z97.1 
or 16 CFR, Part 1201, Section 1201.2 or shall be glass 
bonded to a nonpolymeric coating, sheeting, of film 
backing having a physical integrity to hold the fragments 
when the glass breaks and be tested and conform to the 
acceptance criteria for laminated glass as specified in 
ANSI Z97.1 or 16 CFR, Part 1201, Section 1201.4. The 
glass shall be marked as required by ANSI Z97.1 or 16 
CFR, Part 1201, Section 1201.5. 

6.6.4.4 Markings as specified in ANSI Z97.1 shall 
be on each separate piece of glass, and shall remain 
visible after installation. 

6.6.5 Platform Truck and Guides. The platform shall 
be securely anchored to a truck that supports it. The 



41 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ^jD> 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^^ 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



truck shall be retained in a track or on a guide-rail 
assembly. 

6.6.6 Platform Guarding. A retractable metal guard 
at least 150 mm (6 in:) high shall be provided on the 
lower access end of the platform to prevent the wheel- 
chair from rolling off that end of the platform. It shall 
be automatically actuated or manually activated and 
shall remain in its elevated position until the platform 
returns to the landing. It shall be operated by a positive 
cam action or it shall be provided with an electric contact 
that will stop the movement of the platform within 
150 mm (6 in.) of travel away from the lower landing if 
the guard has failed to rise to its guarding position. 

A retractable platform mounted ramp shall be permit- 
ted to be used in lieu of the retractable platform guard. 
Guards of at least 150 mm (6 in.) in height shall be 
provided on the sides of the platform not used for access. 
Guards and ramps, in their guarding position, shall 
withstand, without permanent deformation, a force of 
550 N (125 lbf ) applied on any 100 mm (4 in.) by 100 mm 
(4 in.) area. This force shall not cause the height of the 
ramp, at any point in its length, to be less than 150 mm 
(6 in.) measured vertically from the surface of the plat- 
form floor. 

Means shall be provided to prevent the wheelchair 
from rolling off the platform floor at the upper access 
end. Retractable ramps are permitted to serve this func- 
tion, and when in use, the incline of the ramp shall not 
be greater than 

(a) 1 in 4 for heights up to 50 mm (2 in.) 

(b) 1 in 6 for heights up to 60 mm (2.5 in.) 

(c) 1 in 8 for heights up to 75 mm (3 in.) 

(d) 1 in 10 for heights up to 100 mm (4 in.) 

(e) 1 in 12 for heights greater than 100 mm (4 in.) 

6.6.7 Seats. A lift shall be permitted to be provided 
with a folding seat and seat belt to accommodate a 
person not in a wheelchair. 

6.6.8 Obstruction Devices. The entire underside and 
the edges of the platform floor facing the upper and 
lower landings shall be equipped with a device that will 
stop the platform traveling within a distance of 50 mm 
(2 in.) or less if it is obstructed in its travel in either 
direction by a force of 20 N (4 lbf) or more. 

6.7 Capacity, Load, and Speed 

6.7.1 Limitations of Capacity, Load, and Speed. The 

capacity shall be one person. The rated load shall be not 
less than 200 kg (450 lb) and not greater than 320 kg 
(700 lb). The lift shall be capable of sustaining and low- 
ering a load as specified in Fig. 9.7. The rated speed 
measured along the incline shall not exceed 0.15 m/s 
(30 ft/min). 

6.7.2 Capacity Plate. A capacity plate stating the 
capacity and rated load shall be furnished by the manu- 
facturer and fastened in a conspicuous place on the 



device. Letters and numbers shall be not less than 6 mm 
(0.25 in.) in height. 

6.7.3 Data Plates. A data plate shall be provided by 
the manufacturer and securely fastened in a conspicuous 
place. The plate shall state the rated speed, rated load, 
weight of platform, suspension or support means, date 
of manufacture, and manufacturer's name. Letters and 
numerals shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

6.8 Safeties and Governors 

All platforms shall be provided with a safety, except 
for platforms of direct-plunger hydraulic lifts. 

The safety shall be actuated by the action of a speed 
governor or by the breakage or slackening of the suspen- 
sion or support means. Where actuation is by a governor, 
the safety shall be set at a maximum speed of 0.4 m/s 
(75 ft/min). Where actuation is by breakage or slacking 
of the suspension or support means, the safety shall be 
set without delay, and independent of the speed gover- 
nor, if provided. 

Safety parts shall conform to the requirements of para. 
6.8.1. Governor ropes, where provided, shall conform to 
the requirements of para. 6.8.2. 

The application and release of safeties shall conform 
to the requirements of paras. 6.8.3, 6.8.4, and 6.8.5. 

6.8.1 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

6.8.1.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 3 l / 2 , based on the ultimate strength of 
the material, and the materials used shall have an elon- 
gation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

6.8.1.2 Springs shall be permitted to be used in the 
operation of platform or counterweight safeties. Where 
used, and where partially loaded prior to safety opera- 
tion, the loading on the spring shall not produce a fiber 
stress exceeding one-half the elastic limit of the material. 
During operation of the safety, the fiber stress shall not 
exceed 85% of the elastic limit of the material. Helical 
springs, where used, shall be in compression. 

6.8.1.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall be 
permitted to be made of cast iron and other metals 
provided such parts have a factor of safety of not less 
than 10. 

6.8.1.4 Rope used as a connection from the safety 
to the governor rope, including rope wound on the 
safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) 
in diameter and shall be made of a corrosion-resistant 
metal. The factor of safety of the rope shall not be less 
than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 



(05) 



42 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



6.8.1.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

6.8.1.6 Safety-rope leading-sheave brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood members. 

6.8.2 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor ropes 
shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, phosphor bronze, 
or stainless steel. They shall be of a regular-lay construc- 
tion, and not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The 
factor of safety of governor ropes shall be not less than 

5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

6.8.3 Means of Application. Safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices 
shall not be used to apply the safeties required by section 

6, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted position. 

6.8.4 Level of Platform on Safety Application. The 

application of a Type A or Type B safety to stop the 
platform with its rated load centered on each quarter 
of the platform floor symmetrically with relation to the 
center line of the platform floor shall not cause the plat- 
form floor to be out of level more than 30 mm/m (0.375 
in. /ft) in any direction. 

6.8.5 Release. When platform safeties are applied, 
no decrease in tension in the governor rope nor motion 
of the platform in the down direction shall release the 
safeties, but such safeties shall be permitted to be 
released by the motion of the platform in the up 
direction. 

6.9 Terminal Stopping Devices 

6.9.1 Normal terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 6.9.2 shall be permitted to use mechanically oper- 
ated, magnetically operated, optical, or static type 
switches. Final terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 6.9.3 shall use only mechanically operated switches 
for determining platform position. Terminal stopping 
devices that are located on the platform or in the runway 
shall be of the enclosed type and securely mounted in 
such a manner so that horizontal movement of the plat- 
form shall not affect the operation of the device. 

6.9.2 Upper and lower normal terminal stopping 
devices operated by the platform shall be provided, and 
shall be set to stop the platform within a tolerance of 
12 mm (0.5 in.) of the upper and lower terminal landings 
under rated loading to zero loading conditions. 

6.9.3 Upper and lower final terminal stopping 
devices operated by the platform to remove power from 
the motor and the brake shall be provided, except as 
specified in para. 6.9.6. They shall be set to stop the 
platform after it travels past the normal terminal stop- 
ping device and before striking an obstruction. A slack- 
rope device equipped with a slack-rope switch of the 



enclosed manually reset type that shall cause the electric 
power to be removed from the driving machine motor 
and brake if any hoisting rope becomes slack shall be 
permitted to be used as the lower final terminal stopping 
device. 

6.9.4 Final terminal stopping devices shall be 
mechanically operated. The switch contacts shall be 
directly opened mechanically. Arrangements that 
depend on a spring, or gravity, or a combination thereof, 
to open the contacts shall not be used. 

6.9.5 The final terminal stopping device shall not 
control the same controller switches as the normal termi- 
nal stopping devices unless two or more separate and 
independent switches are provided, two of which shall 
be closed to complete the driving-machine motor-and- 
brake circuit in either direction of travel. Where a two- 
or three-phase alternating-current driving-machine 
motor is used, these switches shall be of the multipole 
type. The control shall be so designed and installed that 
a single ground or short circuit shall be permitted to 
allow either, but not prevent both, the normal and final 
stopping device circuits from stopping the platform. 

6.9.6 Final terminal stopping devices are not 
required for direct-plunger hydraulic driving machines. 
Lower final terminal stopping devices are not required 
where the limitations of the machine or runway limit 
the travel of the platform (e.g., a platform at rest on the 
bottom terminal landing). 

6.10 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

6.10.1 Operation. Operation of the chairlift from the 
upper or lower landing and from the chair shall be 
controlled by "UP" and "DOWN" control switches at 
all stations, and shall be by means of the continuous- 
pressure type. Controls shall be 1 200 mm (48 in.) maxi- 
mum and 380 mm (15 in.) minimum above the platform 
floor or facility floor or ground level. Operating devices 
shall be designed so that both the "UP" and "DOWN" 
circuits cannot be operated at the same time. 

6.10.2 Attendant Operation. Attendant operation 
shall be permitted to be provided. Where provided, it 
shall conform to the requirements of paras. 6.10.2.1 
through 6.10.2.3. 

6.10.2.1 The attendant shall operate the lift by 
means of a continuous-pressure switch located on a con- 
trol box on the free end of a detachable, flexible cord 
not more than 1 500 mm (60 in.) in length. A manually 
reset emergency stop switch shall also be provided in 
the control box. 

6.10.2.2 No controls, other than an emergency 
stop switch, shall be provided on the lift. 

6.10.2.3 Where the equipment operates on a 
straight flight of stairs, and where the platform is within 



43 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



sight during its entire travel, provisions shall be permit- 
ted to be made for the attendant to operate the lift from 
the top or bottom of the stairs. 

6.10.3 Control and Operating Circuit Requirements. 

The design and installation of the control and operating 
circuits shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
6.10.3.1 through 6.10.3.3. 

6.10.3.1 Control systems that depend on the com- 
pletion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be 
used for interruption of the power and application of 
the machine brake at terminal landings or for stopping 
the machine when the safety applies. 

6.10.3.2 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop the lift 
at the terminal landing, they shall be of the restrained 
compression type. 

6.10.3.3 The failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, relay, or contactor to release in the 
intended manner, or the failure of any solid state device 
to operate as intended, or the occurrence of a single 
accidental ground, or combination of accidental grounds 
shall not permit the lift to start if this failure renders 
ineffective any electrical protective device. 

6.10.4 Motor Reversal Protection/Where a non- 
instantaneous reversible motor is used, a protective cir- 
cuit or device shall be provided to prevent the motor 
from continuing in the same direction if the reversing 
control is activated. 

6.10.5 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection. Lifts 

having polyphase alternating current power supply 
shall be provided with means to prevent the starting of 
the lift motor if the phase rotation is in the wrong direc- 
tion, or if there is a failure of any phase. 

This protection shall be considered to be provided if a 
reversal of phase of the incoming polyphase alternating 
current power will not cause the driving machine motor 
to operate in the wrong direction. 

6.10.6 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

6.10.6.1 All electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. 

6.10.6.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

6.10.7 Slack-Rope and Slack-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving Machines. Wind- 
ing drum driving machines with rope suspension shall 
be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually 
reset type that will remove power from the motor and 
brake if the platform is obstructed in its descent and the 
suspension ropes slacken. Lifts with roller chain suspen- 
sion means shall be provided with a slack-chain device, 
which will remove power from the motor and brake if 



the platform is obstructed in its descent and the suspen- 
sion means slacken. This device is not required to be of 
the manually reset type if the chain sprockets are 
guarded to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged 
from the sprockets. 

6.10.8 Emergency Stop Switch. An emergency stop 
switch shall be provided in the platform and located 
within reach of the passenger whether sitting in a wheel- 
chair or sitting on the folding seat and located 1 200 mm 
(48 in.) maximum and 380 mm (15 in.) minimum above 
the platform floor. 

When opened, this switch shall cause the electric 
power to be removed from the lift driving-machine 
motor and brake. Emergency stop switches shall be of 
the manually opened and closed type and have red 
operating handles or buttons. They shall be conspicu- 
ously and permanently marked "STOP" and shall indi- 
cate the "STOP" and "RUN" positions. Switches shall 
be positively opened mechanically and their opening 
shall not be solely dependent on springs. 

6.10.9 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Brake. Driving-machine brakes shall not be electrically 
released until power has been applied to the driving- 
machine motor. All power feed lines to the brake shall 
be opened, and the brake shall apply automatically 
when any operating device in para. 6.10.1 or 6.10.2 is 
in the stop position and when any electrical protective 
device functions. 

6.10.10 Manual Operations. Means shall be provided 
to permit authorized personnel from a position outside 
the platform to raise or lower the platform manually in 
the event of power failure, unless standby (emergency) 
power is provided. 

6.11 Code Data Plate 

A code data plate shall be provided that indicates the 
A18.1 Standard to be used for inspections and tests. The 
data plate shall be in plain view, securely attached on 
the main line disconnect or on the controller. The data 
plate shall be of such material and construction that the 
letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise 
applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily 
legible. The height of the letters and figures shall be not 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 



7 PRIVATE RESIDENCE INCLINED STAIRWAY 
CHAIRLIFTS 7 

Section 7 applies to inclined stairway chairlifts where 
installed in or at a private residence for use by the mobil- 
ity impaired. 



7 See section 4 for the requirements for this equipment installed 
in locations other than in or at a private residence. 



44 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



7.1 Runways 

7.1.1 A free passage width of not less than 500 mm 
(20 in.) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can 
be folded when not in use, the distance shall be mea- 
sured from the folded position. 

7.1.2 The structure on which the equipment is 
installed shall be capable of safety supporting the loads 
imposed. 

7.1.3 The installation of electrical equipment and 
wiring shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/ 
NFPA 70. 

7.1.4 Electrical equipment shall be certified to the 
requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

7.2 Guide Rails and Tracks 

The supporting tracks or guide rails shall be securely 
anchored to the stairs, floor surface, or side wall. 

The factor of safety used in the design of the guide 
rails and tracks shall be not less than 5 based on the 
rated load. 

7.3 Driving Means and Sheaves 

The driving means shall be one of the following: 

(a) winding drum 

(b) traction 

(c) roped sprocket 

(d) chain sprocket 

(e) screw 

(f) rack and pinion 

(g) direct-plunger hydraulic 
(h) roped-hydraulic 

(i) lever hydraulic 
(j) friction 

7.3.1 General Requirements 

7.3.1.1 The factor of safety used in the design of 
the sprockets and sheaves shall be not less than 5 based 
on the rated load. See section 8 for special requirements 
of particular drive systems. 

7.3.1.2 Driving-machine chains and sprockets 
shall be of steel and shall conform in design and dimen- 
sions to the requirements of ANSI/ ASME B29.1. 

7.3.1.3 Winding drums, traction sheaves, over- 
head sheaves, and deflecting sheaves used with suspen- 
sion and compensating ropes shall be of metal and be 
provided with finished grooves for ropes or shall be 
permitted to be lined with nonmetallic groove material, 
and shall have a pitch diameter of not less than 30 times 
the diameter of the suspension ropes. Where 8 x 19 
steel rope or 7 x 19 steel aircraft cable is used, the pitch 
diameter of the drums and sheaves shall be permitted to 
be reduced to 21 times the diameter of the rope or cable. 

Where the grooves are used to transmit power, suffi- 
cient traction shall be provided between the rope and 



groove, and in the event of nonmetallic lining failure, 
between the rope and the remaining sheave groove, to 
safely stop and hold the chair with 125% of the rated 
load. 

7.3.2 Hydraulic Driving Machines. Direct-plunger 
hydraulic driving machines, where used, shall conform 
to the requirements of para. 8.1, except para. 8.1.2. 

Roped-hydraulic machines shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 8.1 except for paras. 8.1.1, 8.1.3, 
8.1.4.3, and 8.1.4.7. 

7.3.3 Screw Machines. Screw machines, where used, 
shall conform to para. 8.2. 

7.3.4 Friction Machines. Friction machines, where 
used, shall conform to para. 8.3. 

7.3.5 Location of Power Unit and Alignment and 
Guarding of Sheaves and Sprockets. The power unit shall 
be permitted to be mounted on the carriage or placed 
at a remote location. If remotely located, all sheaves and 
sprockets shall be so placed that the rope or chain travels 
in the proper alignment. All sheaves and sprockets shall 
be enclosed or guarded. 

7.3.6 Indirect-Drive Machines. Indirect-drive 
machines, utilizing V-belt drives, tooth drive belts, or 
drive chains, shall conform to the requirements of paras. 
7.3.6.1, 7.3.6.2, and 7.3.6.3, except that the requirements 
of para. 7.3.6.2 shall be permitted to be omitted if a self- 
locking drive meeting the requirements of para. 7.4.2 is 
provided. If multiple belts or chains are provided, they 
shall be preloaded and matched for length in sets. 

7.3.6.1 General Requirements. Belt sets shall be 
selected on the basis of the manufacturer's rated break- 
ing strength and a factor of safety of 10. Chain and 
sprocket sets shall be selected on the basis of recommen- 
dations set forth in the Supplementary Information sec- 
tion of ANSI/ ASME B29.1, using a service factor of 2. 
Offset links in chain are not permitted. Sprockets in a 
chain drive set shall be assembled onto a common hub, 
with teeth cut in-line after assembly to assure equal load 
distribution on all chains. Tooth sheaves for a belt drive 
shall be constructed in a manner to assure equal load 
distribution on each belt in the set. Load determination 
for both the belt and chain sets shall be based on the 
maximum static loading on the carriage, which is the 
full load on the chair at rest and at a position in the 
runway that creates the greatest load, including either 
the carriage or counterweight resting on its buffer. 

Chain drives and belt drives shall be guarded to pro- 
tect against accidental contact and to prevent foreign 
objects from interfering with drives. 

7.3.6.2 Monitoring and Brake Location. Each belt or 
chain in a set shall be continuously monitored by a 
broken belt or chain device that shall function to auto- 
matically interrupt power to the machine and apply the 



45 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



brake if any belt or chain in the set breaks or becomes 
excessively slack. The driving machine brake shall be 
located on the traction sheaves or drum assembly side 
of the driving machines so as to be fully effective if the 
entire belt set or chain set should break. 

7.3.6.3 Replacement of Belts or Chains. If one belt 
or chain of a set is worn, stretched, or damaged so as 
to require replacement, the entire set shall be replaced. 
Sprockets and toothed sheaves shall also be replaced if 
worn. 

7.4 Driving-Machine Brakes 

7.4.1 A driving-machine brake directly attached to 
the driving means through a continuous shaft, mechani- 
cal coupling, or toothed gearing of the electrically 
released spring applied type shall be provided, except 
on lifts with hydraulic driving machines. 

7.4.2 A machine brake is not required if a self -locking 
drive utilizing a lead screw, worm, or other positive 
gearing that will stop and hold the carriage with the 
rated load within 100 mm (4 in.) of down travel after 
the power is removed is provided. 

7.5 Suspension and Support Means 

7.5.1 General Requirements 

7.5.1.1 Suspension and support means shall be 
one of the following: 

(a) steel or iron wire rope 

(b) steel aircraft cable 

(c) roller chain 

(d) direct-plunger hydraulic 

(e) roped-hydraulic 
(/) rack and pinion 
(g) screw 

(h) friction machine guides and rollers 

7.5.1.2 Steel tapes or welded link chains shall not 
be used as suspension means. Where wire ropes are 
used, the diameter shall not be less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). 
Where aircraft cable is used, the diameter shall not be 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 

7.5.2 Factors of Safety. The suspension and support 
means shall have a factor of safety of not less than 7 
based on the tension in the rope, cable, chain, or forces 
exerted on the hydraulic cylinder, screw drive, or rack 
and pinion when raising the rated load. When the car- 
riage and counterweight are suspended by steel ropes 
and the driving means between the machine and the 
counterweight is an endless roller-type chain, the factor 
of safety of such chain shall be not less than 8, based 
on the rated load. See section 8 for special requirements 
for particular drive systems. 

7.5.3 Replacement of Chains and Sprockets. If two 

or more chains are used as a suspension or support 



means and a worn chain or sprocket is replaced, all 
chains and sprockets must be replaced. 

7.6 Chairs and Seats 

Each chair shall be provided with a foot platform, seat, 
and seat belt. At least one handgrip shall be provided. 

7.6.1 Chair Truck and Guides. The chair shall be 
securely anchored to a truck that supports it. The truck 
shall be restrained in a track or on a guide-rail assembly 

7.6.2 Factors of Safety. The factor of safety used in 
the design of the carriage and truck shall be not less 
than 5 based on the rated load. 

7.6.3 Footrest Obstruction Device. If the footrest is 
located so that it is within 150 mm (6 in.) of the step 
nosing or riser, a device shall be provided on the footrest 
to stop the upward motion of the carriage if it encounters 
an object between the footrest and step nosing or riser. 

7.6.4 Footrest Clearance. At no point in its travel shall 
the edge of the footrest facing the upper landing be 
more than 600 mm (24 in.) above the step or landing as 
measured vertically. 

7.7 Capacity, Speed, and Angle of Inclination 

7.7.1 Limitations of Capacity, Load, and Speed. The 

capacity shall not exceed two persons. The rated load 
shall not be less than 115 kg (250 lb) for a one-seat lift 
and not less than 180 kg (400 lb) for a two-seat lift. The 
speed, as measured along the incline, shall not exceed 
0.2 m/s (40 ft/min). 

7.7.2 Limitation of Angle of Inclination. No lift shall 
be installed to operate on a greater incline than 45 deg 
as measured on the mean. 

7.7.3 Capacity Plate. A capacity plate stating the 
rated load in pounds shall be furnished by the manufac- 
turer and fastened in a conspicuous place on the device. 
Letters and numbers shall be not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) 
in height. 

7.7.4 Data Plates. A data plate shall be provided by 
the manufacturer and securely fastened in a conspicuous 
place. It shall state the rated speed, rated load, suspen- 
sion or support means, date of manufacture, and manu- 
facturer 's name. Letters and numerals shall be not less 
than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in height. 

7.8 Safeties and Governors 

All carriages shall be provided with a safety, except 
for platforms of direct-plunger hydraulic lifts. 

The safety shall be actuated by the action of a speed 
governor or by the breakage or slackening of the suspen- 
sion or support means. Where actuation is by a governor, 
the safety shall be set at a maximum speed of 0.4 m/s 
(75 ft/min). Where actuation is by breakage or slack- 
ening of the suspension or support means, the safety 



(05) 



46 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRUFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



shall be set without delay, and independent of the speed 
governor, if provided. 

Safety parts shall conform to the requirements of para. 
7.8.1. Governor ropes, where provided, shall conform to 
the requirements of para. 7.8.2. 

The application and release of safeties shall conform 
to the requirements of paras. 7.8.3, 7.8.4, and 7.8.5. 

7.8.1 Minimum Factors of Safety and Stresses of 
Safety Parts and Rope Connections 

7.8.1.1 Parts of safeties, except springs, safety- 
rope drums, leading sheaves, and their supporting 
brackets and safety-jaw gibs, shall have a factor of safety 
of not less than 3^, based on the ultimate strength of 
the material, and the materials used shall have an elon- 
gation of not less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.). 
Forged, cast, or welded parts shall be stress relieved. 

7.8.1.2 Springs shall be permitted to be used in 
the operation of chair or counterweight safeties. Where 
used, and where partially loaded prior to safety opera- 
tion, the loading on the spring shall not produce a fiber 
stress exceeding one half the elastic limit of the material. 
During operation of the safety, the fiber stress shall not 
exceed 85% of the elastic limit of the material. Helical 
springs, where used, shall be in compression. 

7.8.1.3 Safety-rope drums, leading sheaves, and 
their supporting brackets and safety-jaw gibs shall be 
permitted to be made of cast iron and other metals 
provided such parts have a factor of safety of not less 
than 10. 

7.8.1.4 Rope used as a connection from the safety 
to the governor rope, including rope wound on the 
safety-rope drum, shall be not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) 
in diameter and shall be made of a corrosion-resistant 
metal. The factor of safety of the rope shall not be less 
than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

7.8.1.5 The factors of safety shall be based upon 
the maximum stresses developed in the parts during 
the operation of the safety when stopping rated load 
from governor tripping speed. 

7.8.1.6 Safety-rope leading-sheaves brackets and 
other safety operating parts shall not be attached to or 
supported by wood platform members. 

7.8.2 Material and Factor of Safety. Governor ropes 
shall be of iron, steel, monel metal, phosphor bronze, 
or stainless steel. They shall be of a regular-lay construc- 
tion, and not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter. The 
factor of safety of governor ropes shall be not less than 
5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used. 

7.8.3 Means of Application. Safeties shall be applied 
mechanically. Electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic devices 
shall not be used to apply the safeties required by section 
7, nor to hold such safeties in the retracted position. 



7.8.4 Level of Chair on Safety Application. The appli- 
cation of a Type A or Type B safety to stop the chair, 
with its rated load, shall not cause the chair to be out of 
level more than 30 mm/m (0.375 in. /ft) in any direction. 

7.8.5 Release. When chair safeties are applied, no 
decrease in tension in the governor rope nor motion of 
the chair in the down direction shall release the safeties, 
but such safeties shall be permitted to be released by 
the motion of the chair in the up direction. 

7.9 Terminal Stopping Devices 

7.9.1 Normal terminal stopping devices required by 
para. 7.9.2 shall be permitted to use mechanically oper- 
ated, magnetically operated, optical, or static type 
switches. 

Final terminal stopping devices required by para. 7.9.3 
shall use only mechanically operated switches for 
determining chair position. 

Terminal stopping devices that are located on the chair 
or in the runway shall be of the enclosed type and 
securely mounted in such a manner so that horizontal 
movement of the chair shall not affect the operation of 
the device. 

7.9.2 Upper and lower normal terminal stopping 
devices operated by the chair shall be provided, and 
shall be set to stop the chair at or near the upper and 
lower terminal landings under rated loading to zero 
loading conditions. 

7.9.3 Upper and lower final terminal stopping 
devices operated by the chair to remove power from 
the motor and the brake shall be provided, except as 
specified in para. 7.9.6. They shall be set to stop the 
chair after it travels past the normal terminal stopping 
device and before striking an obstruction. A slack-rope 
device equipped with a slack-rope switch of the enclosed 
manually reset type that shall cause the electric power 
to be removed from the driving machine motor and 
brake if any hoisting rope becomes slack shall be permit- 
ted to be used as the lower final terminal stopping 
device. 

7.9.4 Final terminal stopping devices shall be 
mechanically operated. The switch contacts shall be 
directly opened mechanically. Arrangements that 
depend on a spring, or gravity, or a combination thereof, 
to open the contacts shall not be used. 

7.9.5 The final terminal stopping device shall not 
control the same controller switches as the normal termi- 
nal stopping devices unless two or more separate and 
independent switches are provided, two of which shall 
be closed to complete the driving-machine motor-and 
brake circuit in either direction of travel. Where a two- 
or three-phase alternating-current driving-machine 
motor is used, these switches shall be of the multipole 
type. 



47 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A^ a , 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. v 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



The control shall be so designed and installed that a 
single ground or short circuit shall be permitted to allow 
either, but not prevent both, the normal and final stop- 
ping device circuits from stopping the chair. 

7.9.6 Final terminal stopping devices are not 
required for direct-plunger hydraulic driving machines. 
Lower final terminal stopping devices are not required 
where the limitations of the machine or runway limit 
the travel of the chair (e.g., a carriage at rest on the 
bottom terminal landing). 

7.10 Operating Devices and Control Equipment 

7.10.1 Operation. Operation of the lift from the upper 
or lower landing and from the chair shall be controlled 
by "UP" and "DOWN" control switches at all stations, 
and shall be by means of the continuous-pressure type. 
Controls shall be 1 220 mm (48 in.) maximum and 
380 mm (15 in.) minimum above the platform floor or 
facility floor or ground level. Operating devices shall be 
designed such that both the "UP" and "DOWN" circuits 
cannot be operated at the same time. 

7.10.2 Motor Reversal Protection. If an instantane- 
ously reversible motor is not used, a protective device 
or circuit shall be provided to prevent the motor from 
continuing in the same direction if the reversing control 
is actuated. 

7.10.3 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 

7.10.3.1 All electrical equipment and wiring shall 
conform to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70. 

7.10.3.2 Electrical equipment shall be certified to 
the requirements of CAN/CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5. 

7.10.3.3 The failure of any single magnetically 
operated switch, relay, or contractor to release in the 
intended manner, or the failure of any solid state device 
to operate as intended, or the occurrence of a single 
accidental ground or combination of accidental grounds 
shall not permit the lift to start if this failure renders 
ineffective any electrical protective device. 

7.10.4 Phase Reversal and Failure Protection. Chair- 
lifts having polyphase alternating current power supply 
shall be provided with means to prevent the starting of 
the lift motor if the phase rotation is in the wrong direc- 
tion, or if there is a failure of any phase. 

This protection shall be considered to be provided if a 
reversal of phase of the incoming polyphase alternating 
current power will not cause the driving machine motor 
to operate in the wrong direction. 

7.10.5 Release and Application of Driving-Machine 
Brake. Driving-machine brakes shall not be electrically 
released until power has been applied to the driving- 
machine motor. All power feed lines to the brake shall 
be opened, and the brake shall apply automatically 
when any operating device in para. 7.10.1 or 7.10.2 is in 



the "STOP" position and when any electrical protective 
device functions. 

7.10.6 Control and Operating Circuits. The design and 
installation of the control and operating circuits shall 
conform to the requirements of paras. 7.10.6.1 and 

7.10.6.2. 

7.10.6.1 Control systems that depend on the com- 
pletion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be 
used for interruption of the power and application of 
the driving-machine brake at terminal landings or for 
stopping the machine when the safety applies. 

7.10.6.2 If springs are used to actuate switches, 
contactors, or relays to break the circuit to stop the lift 
at the terminal landing, they shall be of the restrained 
compression type. 

7.10.7 Slack-Rope and Slack-Chain Devices for Wind- 
ing Drum and Roller-Chain-Type Driving Machines. Wind- 
ing drum driving machines with rope suspension shall 
be provided with a slack-rope device of the manually 
reset type that will remove power from the motor and 
brake if the car is obstructed in its descent and the 
suspension ropes slacken. Lifts with roller chain suspen- 
sion means shall be provided with a slack-chain device, 
which will remove power from the motor and brake if 
the car is obstructed in its descent and the suspension 
means slacken. This device is not required to be of the 
manually reset type if the chain sprockets are guarded 
to prevent the chain from becoming disengaged from 
the sprockets. 

7.11 Code Data Plate 

A code data plate shall be provided that indicates the 
A18.1 Standard to be used for inspections and tests. The 
data plate shall be in plain view, securely attached on 
the main line disconnect or on the controller. The data 
plate shall be of such material and construction that the 
letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise 
applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily 
legible. The height of the letters and figures shall be not 
less than 3 mm (0.125 in.). 



8 DRIVING MEANS 

Section 8 contains requirements for specific types of 
driving means where referenced by other sections of 
this Standard. 

8.1 Hydraulic Driving Means 

8.1.1 Hydraulic Jack and Connections. Where multi- 
ple hydraulic jacks are used, they shall be hydraulically 
connected to form a single hydraulic system. 

8.1.1.1 Direct-Acting Hydraulic Lifts. The driving 
member of the hydraulic jack shall be attached to the 



48 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^£* 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



platform frame or platform floor with fastenings of suffi- 
cient strength to support that member with a factor of 
safety of not less than 4. 

The connection to the hydraulic jack shall be capable 
of withstanding, without damage, any forces resulting 
from a plunger stop as described in para. 8.1.5.2. 

Any plunger or cylinder head connector or connection 
shall conform to the requirements of paras. 8.1.3.1, 
8.1.3.4, and 8.1.6. 

8.1.2 Roped-Hydraulic Lift 

8.1.2.1 Roped-hydraulic lifts having less than 
three hydraulic jacks shall be suspended with no fewer 
than two wire ropes per hydraulic jack. Where three or 
more hydraulic jacks are utilized, one rope per jack shall 
be permitted to be used. Should one hydraulic jack 
become disconnected, the remaining jacks shall be capa- 
ble of supporting the load without exceeding allowable 
platform frame stresses or hydraulic jack stress. 

8.1.2.2 Where platforms are suspended by 
hoisting ropes attached to the platform frame or to the 
overhead supporting beams by means of rope shackles, 
the shackles shall be attached to steel hitch plates or to 
structural or formed steel shapes. Such plates or shapes 
shall be secured to the underside or to the webs of the 
platform frame members with bolts, rivets, or welds so 
located that the tensions in the hoisting ropes will not 
develop direct tension in the bolts or rivets. 

Where bolts and rivets are subjected to shearing 
stresses due to tension in the hoisting ropes, the total 
shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (8,600 psi) of actual area 
in the shear plane. The stresses in the welds due to 
tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa 
(8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. Bolts made 
of steel having greater strength than specified by ASTM 
A 307 shall be permitted to be used and the maximum 
allowable stresses increased proportionally based on the 
ratio of the ultimate strengths. Elongation shall conform 
to the requirements of the corresponding ASTM specifi- 
cation. 

The hitch plate supporting beams shall be designed 
to withstand two times the sum of the tensions in all 
hoisting ropes attached to the hitch plates. 

8.1.2.3 The roping ratio that relates the driving 
member of the hydraulic jack speed to the platform 
speed shall not exceed 1:2. 

8.1 .2.4 Ropes passing through seals fixed in cylin- 
der heads shall be permitted to have a clear plastic 
coating applied in order to seal properly and facilitate 
rope inspection. 

8.1.2.5 Means shall be provided to prevent the 
ropes, if slack, from leaving the sheave grooves. 

8.1.2.6 A slack rope device with an enclosed man- 
ually reset switch shall be provided that shall cause 



the electric power to be removed from the hydraulic 
machine pump motor and the control valves should any 
rope become slack. 

8.1.2.7 The traveling sheave shall be attached to 
the upper end of the plunger or cylinder of the hydraulic 
driving machine with fastenings having a minimum fac- 
tor of safety of 4 based upon the ultimate strength of 
the material used. The load to be used in determining 
the factor of safety shall be the resultant of the maximum 
tensions in the ropes leading from the sheave with the 
lift at rest and with rated load in the platform. 

8.1.3 Plungers 

8.1.3.1 Material. For tensile, compressive, bending, 
and torsional loading the plunger and connecting cou- 
plings for the plunger shall have a factor of safety of 
not less than 5 based on ultimate strength. 

Pressure loadings shall have a factor of safety of not 
less than that calculated per para. 9.5. 

8.1.3.2 Plunger Design. Plungers made of steel 
shall be designed in accordance with the applicable for- 
mula in para. 9.2 for calculation of elastic stability, bend- 
ing, and external pressure. For other materials, the 
appropriate modules of elasticity must be utilized. 

Plungers subject to internal pressure shall also be 
designed and constructed in accordance with cylinder 
design formula in para. 9.3. 

8.1.3.3 Plunger Connection. When the hydraulic 
jack is not subjected to eccentric loading, it shall carry 
in tension the weight of the plunger with a factor of 
safety of not less than 4 and restrict total vertical move- 
ment to less than 20% of the buffer stroke, where vibra- 
tion damping means are provided. 

In addition, when the hydraulic jack is subjected to 
eccentric loading, the plunger connection to the platform 
shall also be so designed and constructed as to transmit 
the full eccentric moment into the plunger with a factor 
of safety of not less than 4. 

The plunger and the plunger connection to the plat- 
form shall also be so designed and constructed that 
the total vertical deflection of the loading edge of the 
platform due to eccentric loading of the platform shall 
not exceed 20 mm (0.75 in.). 

8.1.3.4 Plunger joints. Plungers composed of more 
than one section shall have joints designed and con- 
structed to carry in tension the weight of all plunger 
sections below the joint with a factor of safety of not 
less than 4 and to transmit in compression the gross 
load on the plunger with a factor of safety of not less 
than 5 based on ultimate strength. 

Joints shall withstand without damage any forces 
resulting from a plunger stop as described in para. 
8.1.5.1. 

For eccentric loading, the joints shall conform to the 
requirements of paras. 8.1.3.2 and 8.1.3.3. 



49 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



8.1.3.5 Plungers Subject to External Pressure. For 

plungers subjected to external pressure, the working 
pressure shall be not greater than indicated by the for- 
mula in para. 9.2.3. 

8.1.3.6 Plunger Heads Subject to Fluid Pressure. 

Heads of plungers subject to fluid pressure shall con- 
form to the requirements of para. 8.1.4.6. 

8.1.3.7 Plunger-Follower Guide. A plunger-follower 
guide shall be permitted to be used provided it is 
arranged so that the lift is always in a position where 
the unsupported length of the plunger conforms to the 
"maximum free length" as defined in para. 9.2, and to 
open the power circuit if this length is exceeded. 

Telescopic plungers shall have each plunger section 
internally guided. If more than two movable sections 
are used, external guides shall be provided for each 
plunger section. 

8.1.4 Cylinders 

8.1.4.1 Material. The cylinder and connecting cou- 
plings for the cylinder shall be made of materials in 
compliance with the following. For tensile, compressive, 
bending, and torsional loading the cylinder and connect- 
ing couplings shall have a factor of safety of not less 
than 5 based on ultimate strength. For pressure calcula- 
tions the cylinder and connecting coupling shall have a 
factor of safety of not less than that calculated as speci- 
fied in para. 9.5. 

8.1.4.2 Cylinder Design. Cylinders shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the for- 
mula in para. 9.3. 

8.1.4.3 Clearance at Bottom of Cylinder. Clearance 
shall be provided at the bottom of the cylinder so that 
the bottom of the plunger will not strike the safety bulk- 
head of the cylinder when the platform is resting on its 
fully compressed buffer. 

8.1.4.4 Safety Bulkhead. Buried cylinders shall be 
provided with a safety bulkhead having an orifice of a 
size that would permit the platform to descend at a 
speed not greater than 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min) nor less 
than 0.03 m/s (5 ft/min). A space of not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.) shall be left between the welds of the safety bulk- 
head and the cylinder head. Safety bulkheads shall con- 
form to the requirements of para. 8.1.4.6. 

These requirements do not apply where a double cyl- 
inder is used and where both inner and outer cylinders 
conform to the requirements of para. 8.1.4. 

8.1.4.5 Cylinder Packing Heads. Cylinder packing 
heads shall conform to the appropriate requirements of 
paras. 8.1.5 and 9.4. 

8.1.4.6 Closed Cylinder and Plunger Heads. Closed 
heads of cylinders, and heads of plungers subject to fluid 
pressure, shall conform to the following requirements. 



Closed heads of cylinders only shall be of dished 
seamless construction, concave to pressure, except if the 
bottom of the cylinder is supported, and if the cylinder 
is not buried. 

They shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with the applicable formulas in para. 9.4, provided that 
steel heads shall in no case have a thickness less than 
that required for the adjoining shell. 

Dished seamless heads, convex to pressure if used 
on plungers, shall have a maximum allowable working 
pressure of not more than 60% of that for heads of the 
same dimensions with pressure on the concave side. 

8.1.4.7 Collection of Oil Leakage. Means shall be 
provided to collect for removal any oil leakage from the 
cylinder packing gland. The amount collected before 
removal shall not exceed 20 L (5 gal). 

8.1.4.8 Installation Below Ground. Cylinders 
installed below ground shall be provided with protec- 
tion from corrosion by one or more of the following 
methods: 

(a) monitored cathodic protection. 

(b) a coating to protect the cylinder and piping from 
corrosion that will withstand the installation process. 

(c) by a protective plastic casing immune to galvanic 
or electrolytic action, salt water, and other known under- 
ground conditions. The casing shall be capped at the 
bottom and all joints shall be solvent or head welded to 
ensure water tightness and be constructed of polyvinyl 
chloride (PVC) pipe with minimum pipe stiffness of 320 
kPa (46 psi) (as per ASTM D 2412) or of material with 
equivalent characteristics; and the annulus between the 
cylinder and the top of the protective plastic casing shall 
be sealed and provided with means of inspection for 
the presence of oil. 

If the space between the protective casing and cylinder 
is empty, the casing must be designed to withstand a 
static head of water from ground level to the bottom 
of the casing based on manufacturer's ratings of the 
material used. 

8.1.4.9 Means for Relief of Air or Gas. Cylinders 
shall be provided with a means to release air or other gas. 

8.1.4.10 The cylinder shall be provided with a 
flow control device, installed at the cylinder oil inlet, 
that will prevent the carriage from descending at a rate 
in excess of 125% of the rated speed. 

8.1.5 Stops 

8.1.5.1 Metal Stops and/or Other Means. Metal 
stops and /or other means shall be provided at one end 
of the plunger and at the packing head end of the cylin- 
der to prevent the plunger from traveling beyond the 
limits of the cylinder. 

The metal stops and/or other means shall be so 
designed and constructed as to stop the plunger travel- 
ing in the up direction at maximum speed under full 



50 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



load pressure, should the normal terminal stopping 
device fail to operate. No running test onto the stop ring 
is required. 

8.1.5.2 Hydraulic System. The connections to the 
hydraulic driving machine, plunger, plunger connec- 
tion, couplings, plunger joints, cylinder, cylinder con- 
necting couplings, or any other parts of the hydraulic 
system shall be designed and constructed to withstand, 
without damage, a plunger stop in accordance with para. 
8.1.5.1. 

8.1.6 Welding. All welding shall conform to the 
requirements of para. 9.1. 

8.1.7 Hydraulic Connections 

8.1.7.1 Flexible Hose and Fittings. Flexible hose and 
fitting assemblies and flexible couplings shall be permit- 
ted for hydraulic connections. Where installed between 
the check valve and the cylinder, they shall conform to 
the following requirements: 

(a) Installation shall be accomplished without intro- 
ducing twist in the hose and shall conform with the 
minimum bending radius of SAE 100 R2 type high- 
pressure, steel wire reinforced, rubber covered hydraulic 
hose specified in SAE J5 17D. 

(b) The hose shall be suitably protected from surface 
abrasion where it passes through a wall or enclosure. 

(c) The hose and fitting assembly shall have a bursting 
strength sufficient to withstand not less than 8 times the 
working pressure (see Definitions in para. 1.3) 

(d) Conform to the requirements of SAE 100 R2 type 
hose specified in SAE J5 17D and be compatible with 
the fluid used: 

(1) use non-reusable type fittings 

(2) be permanently marked or tagged with 

(a) the SAE hose type identification 

(b) the bursting strength 

(c) manufacturer of hose and fittings 

(e) Flexible couplings shall be so designed and con- 
structed that failure of the sealing equipment will not 
permit separation of the parts connected. The devices 
or means used for preventing the separation of the parts 
connected shall be removable only with the use of tools. 
Devices or means removable with hand-operated quick- 
release levers or toggles shall not be permitted. 

8.1.7.2 Hydraulic Tubing and Fittings 

8.1.7.2.1 Hydraulic tubing and fittings in con- 
formance with 

(a) SAE Standard J524 for tubing. 

(b) SAE Standard J514 for fittings shall be permitted 
to be used for hydraulic connections between the check 
valve and the cylinder. The tubing and fitting assembly 
shall have a bursting strength sufficient to withstand 
not less than 8 times the working pressure. (See Defini- 
tions in para. 1.3.) 



8.1.7.3 Steel Piping. Where used, steel piping shall 
be of the welded, grooved, threaded, or bolted flange 
type. Threads of piping and fittings shall conform to 
ASME Standard Bl.20.1. 

8.2 Screw Machines 

8.2.1 The screw machine shall function to raise or 
lower the platform acting in conjunction with a screw 
column that directly supports the platform. 

8.2.2 Screws shall be made of steel. Nuts shall be 
made of bronze or other materials having an elongation 
of at least 14% in 50 mm (2 in.). 

8.2.3 Means shall be provided to maintain the screw 
in its operating position under all conditions of opera- 
tion. Screws suspended from their upper end shall be 
restrained at their lower end. 

8.2.4 A casing, closed at the end, shall be provided 
to enclose and protect the screw column in cases where 
the screw column extends outside the runway and 
machine room. 

8.2.5 The screw column, nut, and their attachments 
shall provide sufficient strength to support the loads 
imposed on their connections with a factor of safety of 5. 

8.2.6 Means shall be provided to prevent the disen- 
gagement of the nut from the screw column. This means 
shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent disen- 
gagement in the event of overtravel at full speed and 
without damage to any part of the lift installation. Any 
additional loads imposed by this action shall so be con- 
sidered in the computations made in accordance with 
para. 8.2.7. 

8.2.7 Where the screw column is a compression 
member, column formulas of para. 9.2 shall be used in 
the design with the words "screw column" substituted 
for the word "plunger" and: 

A = net cross-sectional area of screw at the root 
of the thread, mm 2 (in. 2 ) 

L = maximum free length of screw, mm (in.) 

R = radius of gyration of screw at root of 
thread, mm (in.) 

W = the total weight with rated load plus one- 
half the weight of the screw column, kg (lb) 
W/A = maximum allowable fiber stress 

8.2.8 Where the screw column is a tension member, 
the unit stress (considering the root dimension and any 
associated stress concentration and /or the reduced sec- 
tion at any joints in the screw) shall not exceed one-fifth 
of the ultimate strength of the material with a maximum 
fiber stress not to exceed 125 kPa (18,000 psi). 

8.2.9 A positive mechanical means shall be provided 
to prevent rotation or separation of sections of a multiple 
section screw column. 



51 



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ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



8.3 Friction Machines 

8.3.1 The friction developed shall be self-adjusting to 
allow for wear and be capable of lifting and supporting a 
platform loaded with 125% of the rated load. 

(05) 8.3.2 The friction drive wheels and the guide means 
shall be made of metal or other durable material or a 
combination of materials. Wear or failure of these mate- 
rials shall not reduce the available friction required to 
ensure compliance with para. 8.3.1. The presence of 
moisture shall not reduce the available friction required 
to ensure compliance with para. 8.3.1. 

8.3.3 Friction drive, if used to drive the over-speed 
governor, shall be independent of the main friction drive. 

8.3.4 If the over-speed governor is friction driven, 
the control system shall include circuitry to continually 
monitor the rotation of the over-speed governor driving 
means during travel. If rotation ceases, electric power 
shall be removed from the driving machine motor and 
brake (if provided) within 10 sec or 1 000 mm (40 in.) 
of travel, whichever occurs first. Releasing operating 
controls shall be permitted to reset the monitor or its 
circuitry. 

8.3.5 The force transmitted to the rotating device by 
friction shall be at least twice the force necessary to 
actuate the safeties. 



9 ENGINEERING TYPE TESTING AND DESIGN 

Section 9 contains formulas, figures, tables, and speci- 
fications to be applied where required by the other sec- 
tions of this Standard. 

9.1 Welding 

9.1.1 Qualification of Welders. Welding of parts, 
except for tack welds later incorporated into finished 
welds, shall be done by welders qualified in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 5 of ANSI/AWS Dl.l. 

At the option of the manufacturer or contractor, the 
welders shall be permitted to be qualified by one of the 
following: 

(a) the manufacturer or contractor 

(b) a professional consulting engineer 

(c) a recognized testing laboratory 

9.1.2 Welding Steel. Welding of steel shall be done 
in accordance with the applicable section of ANSI/AWS 
Dl.l or ANSI/AWS D1.3. 

9.1.3 Welding Metals Other Than Steel. Welding of 
materials other than steel shall be done in accordance 
with the latest AWS requirements applicable to the spe- 
cific materials used. 



9.2 Plunger Design 

Plungers shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with one of the following formulas. 

9.2.1 Plungers Not Subject to Eccentric Loading 

9.2.1.1 Where slenderness ratio of plunger is less 
than 120 



(SI Units) 



W 

— = 9.377 x 

A 



10 7 - 3.344 X 10 3 (L/R) 2 



(U.S. Customary) 



W n 

~ = 13,600 - 0.485 (L/R) 2 

9.2.1.2 8 Where slenderness ratio of plunger is 
greater than 120 

(SI Units) 







W 


6.552 x 10 11 






A " 


(L/R)2 


(U.S 


Customary) 










W 


95,000,000 






A 


" (L/R) 2 


whe 


re 

A = net sectional 


area of plunc 



m 2 (in. 2 ) 
L = maximum free length of plunger, mm (in.). 
Where a plunger-follower guide is used, L 
shall be taken as one-half the amount that 
the free length would be if no follower guide 
was provided. 
R = radius of gyration of plunger section mm 

(in.) 
W = allowable gross weight to be sustained by 
plunger, N (lbf). Where a counterweight is 
provided, the weight of the counterweight 
plus the unbalanced weight of the counter- 
weight ropes shall be permitted to be 
deducted in determining W. In determining 
W, one-half of the weight of the plunger shall 
be included except where a plunger-follower 
guide, is used, in which case, three-fourths 
of the plunger weight shall be included. 
W/A = maximum allowable fiber stress, kPa (psi) 

9.2.1.3 Plungers having a free length of 7 600 mm 
(300 in.) or less shall be permitted to be accepted without 
further examination for strength and elastic stability 
provided all of the following conditions exist: 

(a) The working pressure is 2 MPa (300 psi) or less. 



8 Formulas are for steel. 



52 



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SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



(b) The plunger is 100 mm (4 in.) nominal pipe size 
or larger. 

(c) Pipe not lighter than schedule 40 is used and not 
more than 1.6 mm (0.0625 in.) of metal has been removed 
from the wall thickness in machining. 

9.2.1.4 For plungers with varying cross section, 
the stress shall be calculated for a factor of safety of at 
least 3 using accepted methods for elastic stability. 

9.2.2 Plungers Subject to Eccentric Loading. For 

plungers subject to bending, the stresses due to bending 
as determined by the following formula shall be sub- 
tracted from the stress W/A as determined by the appli- 
cable formulas in para. 9.2.1: 



(U.S. Customary) 



(SI Units) 



(U.S. Customary) 



S = 



S = 



Z 



Z 



where 

S = stress due to bending, MPa (psi) 
Z = section modulus of plunger section, mm 3 (in. 3 ) 
e = eccentricity of W&, mm (in.) 
W& = maximum eccentric load, N (lbf). Where any 
or all of this load is caused by moving wheel 
loads imposed on the edge of the platform, 
the total of such loads shall be doubled for 
impact. 

9.2.3 Plungers Subjected to External Pressure. For 

plungers subjected to external pressure, the working 
pressure shall be not more than that indicated by the 
following formula. 

9.2.3.1 Where the ratio of t/D is less than 0.023 
(SI Units) 



p = 2 296 
(U.S. Customary) 

p = 333 



1- /1-1600[^) 2 



-V^^f] 



9.2.3.2 Where the ratio of t/D is greater than 0.023 
(SI Units) 

p = 199 200 jr - 3 185 



p = 28,890 - 5 - 



462 



where 

D = external finished diameter, mm (in.) 

p = working pressure, kPa (psi) 

t = finished wall thickness, mm (in.) 

9.2.4 Telescoping Plungers. Telescoping plungers 
shall have each plunger section internally guided. If 
more than two movable sections are used, plunger fol- 
lower guides shall be provided for each plunger section. 
In the formulas in paras. 9.2.1.1 and 9.2.1.2, the values 
of A and R shall be for the smallest plunger section. 
When plunger follower guides are used, the value of L 
shall be the maximum free length of the smallest section 
in inches. When plunger follower guides are not used, 
the value of L shall be taken as 1.4 times the maximum 
free length of the smallest plunger section. 

9.3 Cylinder Design 

Cylinder shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with the following formula: 



where 

C = 
S = 
d = 

V = 
t = 



depth of the thread or groove, mm (in.) 
allowable stress, kPa (psi) (see para. 9.5.2) 
internal diameter, mm (in.) 
working pressure, kPa (psi) 
minimum thickness of wall, mm (in.) 



9.4 Cylinder and Plunger Heads 

Heads of cylinders and heads of plungers subject to 
fluid pressure shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with one of the following applicable for- 
mulas: 

9.4.1 Flat unreinforced heads 



9.4.2 Dished seamless hemispherical heads, concave 
to pressure 



t = 



5pr 
6$ 



9 A3 Dished seamless ellipsoidal heads, concave to 
pressure (ellipsoidal heads in which one-half of the 
minor axis equals one-quarter the inside diameter of 
skirt), 

5pD 
6S 



53 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFE1Y STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



where 

D = 

S = 

d = 

V = 

r = 

t = 



inside diameter of skirt, mm (in.) 

allowable stress, kPa (psi) (see para. 9.5.2) 

diameter of head between supporting 

edges, mm (in.) 

working pressure, kPa (psi) 

radius to which head is dished, measured on 

concave side (not greater than d), mm (in.) 

minimum thickness of head, mm (in.) 



9.5 Safety Factor 

9.5.1 The minimum factor of safety for components 
subject to fluid pressure shall be as follows: 



F = 



5.04 
£ - 2.8 



+ 2.7 



where 
E = 



F = 



percent elongation in 50 mm (2 in.) gauge length 
as per ASTM E 8 expressed as a whole number 
(e.g., 20% = 20 and 5% = 5). The minimum 
allowable £ shall be 5. 

minimum factor of safety based on 0.2% proof 
stress yield point. The minimum allowable F 
shall be 3 



9.5.2 The allowable stress to be used in paras. 9.3 
through 9.4 shall be determined as follows: 



S = 



Y.R 
F 



where 
F 

S 
Y.R 



minimum factor of safety based on 0.2% proof 
yield stress point as determined in para. 9.5.1 
allowable stress kPa (psi) 
yield point, based on 0.2% proof yield stress 
point, kPa (psi) 



9.6 Engineering Tests: Safety Nut and Speed 
Limiting Device of Screw Column Lifts 

This section specifies the engineering tests of safety 
nuts and speed limiting devices that are permitted as 
alternate safety devices on screw column lifts. 

9.6.1 Test of Safety Nut. The test shall be made in 
either the manufacturer's plant, in a testing laboratory, 
or in the field by suspending the platform with rated 
load a distance above the safety nut of at least 12 mm 
(0.5 in.) and allowing it to drop (free-fall) until the entire 
load rests on the safety nut. The test shall be witnessed 
by, and the test results certified by, a testing laboratory 
or registered professional engineer. After the test, the 
screw column, screw supports safety nut, guide rails, 
and platform frame shall be inspected to determine that 
there has been no damage. A test on a given capacity 
lift shall be accepted for all similarly designed lifts by 



that manufacturer for the same or lesser capacity 
(rated load). 

9.6.2 Test of Speed Limiting Device. The test shall be 
made either in the manufacturer's plant, in a testing 
laboratory, or in the field by suspending the platform 
with rated load at the maximum height of travel above 
the lower limit of normal travel and allowing it to drop 
(free-fall) until the descent is controlled by the speed 
limiting device. The platform shall be allowed to con- 
tinue its descent until brought to rest. The test shall be 
instrumented so that a graph of velocity versus distance 
can be plotted. The test shall be witnessed by, and the test 
results certified by, a testing laboratory or a registered 
professional engineer. After the test, the screw column, 
screw column supports, speed limiting device, guide 
rails, and platform frame shall be inspected to determine 
that there has been no damage. A test on a given capacity 
lift shall be accepted for all similarly designed lifts by 
that manufacturer for the same or lesser capacity 
(rated load). 

9.7 Minimum Load to Sustain and Lower 

The following formulas shall be used for determining 
the minimum load to sustain and lower: 



(SI Units) 



(US. Customary) 



W = 35.05A 2 + 325.7 r A 



W = 0.667A 2 + 66.7 'A 



where 

A = inside net platform area, mm 2 (ft 2 ) 
W = minimum rated load, kg (lb) 

Figure 9.7 gives the minimum load to sustain and 
lower for various inside net platform areas. 

9.8 Tapered Rope Sockets 

9.8.1 The axial length, L, of the tapered portion of 
the socket shall be not less than 4 3 4 times the diameter 
of the wire rope used. 

9.8.2 The axial length, U; of the open portion of the 
rope socket shall be not less than 4 times the diameter 
of the wire rope used. 

9.8.3 The length of the straight bore, L", at the small 
end of the socket shall be not more than 12 mm (0.5 in.) 
nor less than 3 mm (0.125 in.), and its outer edge shall 
be rounded and free from cutting edges. 

9.8.4 The diameter, d, of the hole at the large end 
of the tapered portion of the socket shall be not less 
than 2 : 4 times nor more than 3 times the diameter of 
the wire rope used. 



54 



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SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



1500(3300) 






































'a? 

m 1000(2200) 

O 

—1 






































500(1100) 




























































1(10.8) 2(21.5) 3(32.4) 

Inside Net Platform Area, m 2 (ft 2 ) 



4 (43.1) 



GENERAL NOTE: 
1 lb = 0.45 kg 
1 ft 2 = 9.29 E - 



02m" 



Fig. 9.7 Minimum Loads to Sustain and Lower Based Upon Inside Net Platform Area 



(05) 



9.8.5 The diameter of the hole in the small end of 
the socket shall not exceed the nominal diameter of the 
rope by more than 2 mm (0.09375 in.). 

9.8.6 Only babbitt metal or thermo setting resin com- 
positions intended for wire rope resocketing shall be 
used to secure ropes in tapered sockets. The embedment 
material shall conform to para. 9.8.6.1 or 9.8.6.2. 

9.8.6.1 Babbitt metal shall contain at least 9% of 
antimony and shall be clean and free from dross. 

9.8.6.2 Thermosetting resin composition shall 
conform to the following. 

9.8.6.2.1 Uncured (liquid) material shall have 
the following properties: 

{a) Viscosity of Resin-Catalyst Mixture. The viscosity of 
the resin-catalyst mixture shall be sufficiently low to 
permit rapid, complete saturation of the rope rosette in 
order to prevent entrapment of air. 

(b) Flash Point. All components shall have a minimum 
flash point of 27°C (80°F). 

(c) Shelf Life. All components shall have a irrinimum 
of 1 year shelf life at 21°C (70°F). 

(d) Pot Life and Cure Time. After mixing, the resin- 
catalyst mixture shall be pourable for a minimum of 
8 min at 21°C (70°F) and shall cure within 1 hr after 
hardening. Heating of the resin mixture in the socket to 
accelerate curing shall follow the resin manufacturer's 
instructions. 



9.8.6.2.2 Cured resin shall have the following 
properties: 

(a) Socket Performance. Resin, when cured, shall 
develop sufficient holding strength to solvent-washed 
wire-in-wire rope sockets to develop 80% of the ultimate 
strength of all types of wire rope. No slippage of wire 
is permissible when testing resin-filled rope socket 
assemblies in tension; however, after testing, some seat- 
ing of the resin cone shall be permitted to be apparent 
and is acceptable. Resin terminations shall also be capa- 
ble of withstanding tensile shock loading. 

(b) Shrinkage. The volumetric shrinkage of fully cured 
resin shall not exceed 2%. The use of an inert filler in 
the resin is permissible. 

(c) Curing. The resin-catalyst mixture shall be capable 
of curing either at ambient 16°C-38°C (60°F-100°F) or 
elevated temperatures. At temperatures below 16°C 
(60°F), an elevated temperature cure shall be used. 

9.8.6.2.3 The thermoset resin composition 
intended for wire rope socketing shall be supplied in 
two parts consisting of preweighed resin and catalyst, 
each packaged separately within a kit. Each kit con- 
taining the thermoset resin composition shall consist of 
the following: 

(a) preweighed thermoset resin 

(b) preweighed catalyst 

(c) necessary materials for mixing and pouring 

(d) detachable label on resin container 



55 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



9.8.6.2.4 The label on the resin container shall 
show the following information: 

(a) product name 

(b) part designation (e.g., 'Tart A" or "Resin") 

(c) manufacturer's name and address 

(d) mixing instructions 

(e) ICC information 

(f) safety warnings and cautions 

(g) packaging date 
(h) flash point 

(i) shelf life 
(j) storage instructions 
(k) curing instructions 
(I) net weight 

9.8.6.2.5 The label on the catalyst container shall 
show the following information: 

(a) product name 

(b) part designation (e.g., 'Tart B," "Catalyst," or 
"Hardener") 

(c) manufacturer's name and address 

(d) safety warnings and cautions 

(e) flash point 

(f) storage instructions 

(g) net weight 

10 ROUTINE, PERIODIC, AND ACCEPTANCE 
INSPECTIONS AND TESTS 

Section 10 covers routine, periodic, and acceptance 
inspections and tests. The inspections and tests shall 
apply to the corresponding requirements of sections 2 
through 7. 

10.1 General Requirements 

10.1.1 Routine Inspections and Tests. Routine inspec- 
tions and tests shall be made by an inspector employed 
by the authority having jurisdiction, by an inspector 
employed by an accredited insurance company, which 
is the primary insurer of the equipment to be inspected, 
or by a person authorized by the authority having juris- 
diction. 

10.1.2 Periodic Inspections and Tests 

10.1.2.1 Periodic inspections and tests shall be 
witnessed by an inspector employed by the authority 
having jurisdiction, except as specified in para. 10.1.2.3. 

10.1.2.2 The owner or his authorized agent shall 
have all of the tests required by para. 10.3 made by a 
person qualified to perform such service in the presence 
of an inspector employed by the authority having juris- 
diction, except as specified in para. 10.1.2.3. 

10.1.2.3 Where the authority having jurisdiction 
does not employ a qualified inspector, it shall authorize 
a qualified person to witness the inspection and tests 



on its behalf. Immediately after the inspection and tests, 
the inspector shall submit to the authority having juris- 
diction a statement certifying that the inspection and 
tests have been performed and a report on the results 
thereof. 

The authority having jurisdiction may authorize the 
person witnessing the tests to 

(a) submit to the owner or his authorized agent a 
statement certifying that the tests have been performed 
and a report on the results thereof 

(b) attach a metal tag to the tested devices as required 

10.1.3 Acceptance Inspections and Tests 

10.1.3.1 The acceptance inspection shall be made 
by an inspector employed by the authority having juris- 
diction, except as specified in para. 10.1.3.3. 

10.1.3.2 The person installing or altering the 
equipment shall perform all of the tests required by para. 
10.4 or 10.5 in the presence of an inspector employed by 
the authority having jurisdiction, except as specified in 
para. 10.1.3.3. 

10.1.3.3 The authority having jurisdiction may 
authorize a qualified person to make the inspection and 
witness the tests on its behalf. Immediately after the 
inspection and tests, the inspector shall submit to the 
authority having jurisdiction a statement certifying that 
the inspection and tests have been performed and a 
report on the results thereof. 

10.1.4 Applicability of Inspection and Test Require- 
ments. Inspections and tests required by section 10 are 
to determine that the equipment conforms with the fol- 
lowing applicable standard requirements: 

(a) the standard requirements at the time of instal- 
lation 

(b) the standard requirements at the time of any alter- 
ation 

10.1.5 Installation Placed Out of Service. When an 
installation is placed out of service (see para. 1.3, Defini- 
tions), inspections and tests may be discontinued. Before 
the installation is put back in service, it shall be subject 
to all of the required routine and periodic tests and 
inspections, including the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year 
tests. 

10.2 Routine Inspections and Tests 

10.2.1 Inspection and Test Periods. The routine 
inspections and tests of sections 2, 3, and 4 lifts shall be 
made at intervals not longer than 6 months. Routine 
inspections and tests of sections 5, 6, and 7 lifts shall be 
made at intervals not longer than 1 year. 



56 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



10.2.2 Inspection and Test Requirements. Routine 
inspections and tests shall include where applicable the 
following. 

10.2.2.1 Inside Platform Inspections 

(a) Stop switches 

(b) Operating control devices 

(c) Floor and landing sill 

(d) Lighting 

(e) Emergency signal 

(f) Door or gate 

(g) Enclosure 
(h) Floor 

(i) Signs and operating device symbols 

(j) Rated load, platform floor area, and data plate 

(k) Ride 

10.2.2.2 Machine Inspections 

(a) Enclosure of machine space 

(b) Guarding of exposed auxiliary equipment 

(c) Overhead beam and fastenings 

(d) Drive machine brake 

(e) Traction drive machines 

(f) Gears and bearings 

(g) Winding drum machine 

(h) Belt- or chain-drive machine 

(i) Traction sheaves . 

(j) Secondary and deflector sheaves 

(k) Rope fastenings 

(I) Slack rope devices 

(m) Governor, overspeed switch, and seal 

(n) Platform safeties 

(o) Hydraulic power unit 

(p) Control valves 

(q) Hydraulic cylinders 

10.2.2.3 Inside Runway Inspections 

(a) Platform, overhead, and deflector sheaves 

(b) Normal terminal stopping devices 

(c) Final terminal stopping devices 

(d) Broken rope, chain, or tape switch 

(e) Counterweight 

(f) Head room 

(g) Slack rope devices 
(h) Traveling sheave 

(i) Platform safeties and guiding members 

(j) Runway construction 

(k) Pipes, wiring, and ducts 

(I). Runway clearances 

(m) Traveling cables and junction boxes 

(n) Door and gate equipment 

(o) Platform frame 

(p) Guide rails fastening and equipment 

(q) Governor rope 

(r) Governor releasing carrier 

(s) Wire rope fastening and hitch plate 



(t) Suspension rope 

(u) Compensation ropes and chains 

10.2.2.4 Outside Runway Inspections 

(a) Runway doors 

(b) Runway door locking devices 

(c) Runway enclosure 

10.3 Periodic Inspections and Tests 

Inspection and Test Periods. In addition to the routine 
inspections and tests (para. 10.2), the applicable inspec- 
tions and tests specified in para. 10.3.1 shall be per- 
formed in intervals not longer than 1 year, the applicable 
inspections and tests specified in para. 10.3.2 shall be 
made at intervals not longer than 3 years, and the appli- 
cable inspections and tests specified in para. 10.3.3 shall 
be made at intervals not longer than 5 years. 

10.3.1 One-Year Inspection and Test Requirements 

10.3.1.1 Cylinders. Cylinders that are exposed shall 
be visually inspected. Cylinders that are not exposed 
shall be tested. After a minimum of 15 min, a change 
in platform position that cannot be accounted for by 
visible oil leakage, valve leakage, or temperature change 
indicates a leak in the unexposed portion of the cylinder 
or the piping. 

10.3.1.2 Safeties 

10.3.1.2.1 All working parts of platform safeties 
shall be inspected to determine that they are in satisfac- 
tory operating condition. 

10.3.1.2.2 Safeties shall be subjected to the fol- 
lowing tests with no load in the platform. 

(a) Type A, B, or C governor-operated safeties shall 
be operated by tripping the governor by hand with the 
platform operating at the slowest operating speed in the 
down direction. In this test the safety shall bring the 
platform to rest promptly. In the case of Type A, B, or 
C safeties employing rollers or dogs for application of 
the safety, the rollers or dogs are not required to operate 
their full travel. 

(b) Governor-operated wood guide-rail safeties shall 
be tested by tripping the governor by hand with the 
platform at rest and moving the platform in the down 
direction until it is brought to rest by the safety, and the 
hoisting ropes slip on the traction machines or become 
slack on winding drum machines. 

(c) Type A and wood guide-rail safeties without gov- 
ernors, which are operated as a result of the breaking 
or slackening of the hoisting ropes, shall be tested by 
obtaining the necessary slack rope to cause it to function. 

10.3.1.3 Governors. Governors shall be inspected 
and operated manually to determine that all parts, 
including those that impart the governor pull-through 
tension to the governor rope, operate freely. 



57 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME A18.1-2005 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 
PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



10.3.1.4 Slack-Rope Devices on Winding Drum 
Machines. Slack-rope devices on winding drum 
machines shall be operated manually and inspected to 
determine conformance with the applicable require- 
ments. 

10.3.1.5 Normal and Final Terminal Stopping 
Devices. Normal and final terminal stopping devices 
shall be inspected and tested to determine conformance 
with the applicable requirements. 

10.3.1.6 Broken Rope, Tape, or Chain Switch. Where 

a rope, tape, or chain is used to connect the motion of 
the platform to the machine room normal limit, the 
switch that senses failure of this connection shall be 
tested. 

10.3.1.7 Slack-Rope Device on Roped-Hydraulic 
Machines. Slack-rope devices for roped-hydraulic lifts 
will be tested for conformance by lowering the platform 
or blocking and creating slack rope causing the device 
to operate. The slack rope can also be obtained by opera- 
tion of the safety during the annual safety test. 

10.3.2 Three-Year Inspection and Test Requirements 

10.3.2.1 Unexposed Portions of Pistons. Piston 
rods of roped water hydraulic lifts shall be exposed, 
thoroughly cleaned, and inspected for wear or corrosion. 
The piston rods shall be replaced if at any place the 
diameter is less than the root diameter of the threads. 

10.3.3 Five-Year Inspection and Test Requirements 

10.3.3.1 Platform Safeties. Types A, B, and C safe- 
ties, except those operating on wood guide rails and 
their governors, shall be tested with rated load in the 
platform. Test shall be made by tripping the governor 
by hand at the rated speed. The following operational 
conditions shall be checked: 

(a) Type B safeties shall stop the platform with the 
rated load within the required range of stopping devices 
for which the governor is tripped. 

(b) For Type A safeties and Type A safety parts of 
Type C safeties, there shall be sufficient travel of the 
safety rollers or dogs remaining after the test to bring the 
platform and its rated load to rest on safety application at 
governor tripping speed. A metal tag shall be attached 
to the safety-releasing carrier in a permanent manner, 
giving the date of the safety test together with the name 
of the person or firm who performed the test. 

10.3.3.2 Governors 

10.3.3.2.1 The tripping speed of the governor 
and the speed at which the governor overspeed switch, 
where provided, operates shall be tested to determine 
conformance with the applicable requirements and the 
adjustable means shall be sealed. 



10.3.3.2.2 The governor rope pull-through force 
shall be tested to determine conformance with the appli- 
cable requirements, and the adjustment means shall be 
sealed. 

10.3.3.2.3 After these tests, a metal tag indicat- 
ing the date of the governor tests together with the name 
of the person or firm that performed the tests shall be 
attached to the governor in a permanent manner. 

10.3.3.3 Brake. The brake shall be tested by placing 
125% of rated load in the platform and running it to the 
lowest landing by normal operating means. The driving 
machine shall safely lower, stop, and hold the platform 
with this overload. 

10.3.3.4 Ropes. Ropes used on roped-hydraulic 
lifts shall be inspected. Coated rope shall be required 
to have a magnetic flux test capable of detecting broken 
wires in addition to a visual test. 

10.3.3.5 Fastenings. Wire rope fastenings on 
roped-hydraulic lifts utilizing hydraulic jacks equipped 
with pistons that are hidden by cylinder head seals shall 
also be inspected even if it is temporarily necessary to 
support the platform by other means and disassemble 
the cylinder head. 

10.4 Acceptance Inspections and Tests 

Inspections and Tests Required. All new installations 
shall be inspected and tested to determine their safety 
and compliance with the applicable requirements of this 
Standard before being placed in service. The inspections 
and tests shall include routine (para. 10.2), periodic 
(para. 10.3), and those specified in para. 10.4.1. 

Installations on which alterations have been per- 
formed shall be inspected and tested as required by 
para. 10.5 before being placed back in service. 

10.4.1 General Requirements for Types A, B, and C 
Safeties. The following requirements apply to the 
acceptance tests of Types A, B, and C safeties. 

10.4.1.1 Platform safeties shall be tested with 
rated load in the platform. In making the test of platform 
safeties, the load shall be centered on each quarter of 
the platform floor symmetrically with respect to the 
center lines of the platform floor. Counterweight safeties, 
where provided, shall be tested with no load in the 
platform. 

10.4.1.2 The tripping speed of the governor shall 
be measured by means of a tachometer. 

10.4.1.3 If adjustments to the governor tripping 
speed are made, the governor shall be sealed immedi- 
ately following the test. 

10.4.1.4 The operation of the governor overspeed 
and the platform safety-mechanism switch shall be 
tested to determine conformance. 



58 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SAFETY STANDARD FOR 

PLATFORM LIFTS AND STAIRWAY CHAIRLIFTS 



ASME A18.1-2005 



10.4.1.5 After the safety has stopped the platform, 
the level of the platform floor shall be checked to deter- 
mine conformance. 

10.4.2 Type A Governor-Operated Safeties. Type A 
governor-operated safeties shall be tested by operating 
the platform at its normal speed in the down direction 
and tripping the governor jaws by hand. A test shall 
also be made of the inertia application of the safety to 
determine conformance by attaching the proper weight 
to the return run of the governor rope. The manufacturer 
shall inform the person making the test of the weight 
necessary to be added to the governor rope when mak- 
ing the inertia application test. This weight shall be the 
weight necessary to reproduce inertia operation of the 
safety, at not more than 9 /io gravity. The inertia applica- 
tion test shall be made with the platform stationary, and 
the weight when released shall move the safety parts 
into contact with the rails. Inertia application of the 
safety on Type A auxiliary safety plank of Type C safeties 
is not required. 

10.4.2.1 If means other than inertia application of 
the safety is provided, such means shall be tested in an 
appropriate manner to ensure that the safety will apply 
without appreciable delay under free-fall condition and 
that safety application is independent of the location of 
the break in the hoisting ropes. 

10.4.3 Type A Safeties Without Governors. Type A 

safeties without governors, which are operated only as 
a result of the breaking or slackening of the suspension 
ropes, shall be tested by obtaining the necessary slack 
rope to cause it to function. 

10.4.4 Types B and C Safeties 

10.4.4.1 Types B and C safeties shall be subjected 
to an overspeed test, with the suspension ropes attached, 
by gradually increasing the speed of the platform until 
the governor causes application of the safety. Safeties of 
lifts equipped with alternating current driving machine 
motors, where the platform with its rated load does not 



cause sufficient overspeed when the machine brake is 
released to trip the governor jaws, shall be tested by 
operating the platform at its normal speed in the down 
direction and tripping governor jaws by hand. 

10.4.4.2 The overspeed switch on the governor 
shall be inoperative during the overspeed test. In order 
to assume that the safety will retard the platform with 
minimum assistance from the driving machine and min- 
imize the development of slack rope and fallback of the 
counterweight, the switch on the platform operated by 
the platform safety mechanism shall, for the duration 
of the test, be temporarily adjusted to open as close as 
possible to the position at which the platform safety 
mechanism is in the fully applied position. 

10.4.5 Normal Terminal Stopping Devices 

10.4.5.1 The bottom normal terminal stopping 
device shall be tested with 125% of rated load on the 
platform for conformance. 

10.4.5.2 The top normal terminal stopping device 
shall be tested with no load on the platform for confor- 
mance. 

10.4.6 Stop Ring. The plunger shall be inspected by 
inching the platform up to verify that a stop ring has 
been provided. 

10.4.7 Bottom Cylinder Clearance. The bottom cylin- 
der clearance shall be checked to determine confor- 
mance. 

10.4.8 Speed. The rated speed in the up direction 
and the operating speed in the down direction shall be 
verified. 

10.5 Inspection and Test Requirements for Altered 
Installations 

Where any alteration is made, the entire installation 
shall comply with the applicable sections 2 through 7 
including para. 10.4, Acceptance Inspection and Tests. 



59 



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60 

Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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isbn o-v^ia-e^-t, 



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Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of A SMB.